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Flashcards in F Deck (28):
1

a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score

factor analysis

2

the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.

False consensus effect

3

therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication.

family therpy

4

someone who imagines and recalls experiences with lifelike vividness and who spends considerable time fantasizing.

fantasy-prone personality

5

a condition in which faraway objects are seen more clearly than near objects because the image of near objects is focused behind the retina.

farsightedness

6

nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement

feature detectors

7

people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood

feel good, do good phenomenon

8

physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions.

fetal alcohol syndrome

9

the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

fetus

10

the organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground)

figure-ground

11

according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, where conflicts were unresolved.

fixation

12

the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving.

fixation

13

in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.

fixed interval schedule

14

in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses

fixed ration schedule

15

a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

flashbulb memory

16

one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood

fluid intelligence

17

the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.

foot-in-the-door phenonmenon

18

in Piaget's theory the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12 during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

formal operational stage

19

the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster

fovea

20

the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significant~ affect decisions and judgments

framing

21

twins who develop from separate eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment

fraternal twins

22

in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing

free association

23

the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time (for exampIe, per second).

frequency

24

in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch.

frequency theory

25

the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments.

frontal lobes

26

the principle that frustration--the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal creates anger, which can generate aggression.

frustration-aggression principle

27

the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.

functional fixedness

28

he tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.

fundamental attribution error