Flashcards in N Deck (32):
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
the long standing controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
nature nurture issue
an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations.
near death experience
a condition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects because the lens focuses the image of distant objects in front of the retina
neural "cables" containing many axons. These bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs.
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication system, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
-interconnected neural cells. With experience, networks can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results. Computer simulations of neural networks show analogous learning.
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
a psychological disorder that is usually distressing but that allows one to think rationally and function socially. Freud saw the neurotic disorders as ways of dealing with anxiety
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether it will generate a neural impulse
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep, within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered.
the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes.
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
normative social influence
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
learning by observing others
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning research.
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures.
opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.
the theory that opposing retinal processes (redgreen, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green.
the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
"them" -those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup
the tendency to be more confident than correct-to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments