Flashcards in C Deck (50):
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (i) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion.
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
emotional release In psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.
the brain and spinal cord.
Central Nervous System
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance.
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus.
a humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth.
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses.
the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and remembering
a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior).
cognitive behavior therapy
a mental~ representation of the layout of one's environment For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have teamed a cognitive map of it
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions.
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent, For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history
giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or worl( group) and defining one's identity accordingly.
perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object.
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
in Piaget's theory the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer.
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus (CS).
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS), comes to trigger a conditioned response.
hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea.
conduction hearing loss
receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
our awareness of ourselves and our environments
the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.
the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest (such as a driving test that samples driving tasks).
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
a binocular cue for perceiving depth; the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object
the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in the United States.
coronary heart disease
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning.
the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
the behavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict; thus, the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity.
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
cross sectional study
one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
scan a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body.
CT (computed tomography)