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Flashcards in C Deck (50):
1

the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (i) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion.

Cannon-Bard theory

2

an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

case study

3

emotional release In psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.

catharsis

4

the brain and spinal cord.

Central Nervous System

5

the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance.

Cerebellum

6

the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center

cerebral cortex

7

threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.

chromosomes

8

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.

chunking

9

the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle

circadian rhythm

10

a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus.

classical conditioning

11

a humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth.

client-centered therapy

12

a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.

clinical psychology

13

a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses.

cochlea

14

the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and remembering

cognition

15

a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior).

cognitive behavior therapy

16

a mental~ representation of the layout of one's environment For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have teamed a cognitive map of it

cognitive map

17

therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions.

cognitive therapy

18

the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent, For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.

cognitive-dissonance theory

19

Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history

collective unconcious

20

giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or worl( group) and defining one's identity accordingly.

collectivism

21

perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object.

color constancy

22

the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.

companionate love

23

a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.

concept

24

in Piaget's theory the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.

concrete-operational stage

25

a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer.

conditioned reinforcer

26

in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus (CS).

conditioned response

27

in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS), comes to trigger a conditioned response.

conditioned stimulus

28

hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea.

conduction hearing loss

29

receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.

cones

30

a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions

confirmation bias

31

a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas

conflict

32

adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard

conformity

33

our awareness of ourselves and our environments

conciousness

34

the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.

conservation

35

the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest (such as a driving test that samples driving tasks).

content validity

36

reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.

continuous reinforcement

37

the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

control condition

38

a binocular cue for perceiving depth; the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object

convergence

39

the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in the United States.

coronary heart disease

40

the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

corpus callosum

41

a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other

correlation coefficient

42

a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning.

counter conditioning

43

the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas

creativity

44

the behavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict; thus, the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity.

criterion

45

an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development

critical period

46

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.

critical thinking

47

a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another

cross sectional study

48

one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age

crystallized intelligence

49

scan a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body.

CT (computed tomography)

50

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

culture