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Flashcards in E Deck (25):
1

momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.

echoic memory

2

an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy.

eclectic approach

3

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.

effortful processing

4

the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.

ego

5

in Piaget's theory the inability of the preoperational child to take another's point of view.

egocentrism

6

an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.

electroencephalogram

7

the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.

embryo

8

a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience.

emotion

9

the ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions.

emotional intelligence

10

a test (such as the MM P1) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups

empirically derived test

11

the processing of information into the memory system-for example, by extracting meaning

encoding

12

the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.

endocrine system

13

natural, opiate like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure

endorphins

14

very nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us

environment

15

a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it

equity

16

a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity.

estrogen

17

a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.

electroconvulsive therapy

18

the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection Natural selection is presumed to have favored genes that predisposed behavior tendencies and information processing systems that solved adaptive problems faced by our ancestors, thus contributing to the survival and spread of their genes.

evolutionary psychology

19

a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants the experimenter controls other relevant factors.

experiment

20

-the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable

experimental condition

21

memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare."

explicit memory

22

the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate.

external locus of control

23

the diminishing of a conditioned response; in classical conditioning this occurs when an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS)

extinction

24

the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input. Said to include telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition.

extrasensory perception

25

a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment.

extrinsic motivation