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Flashcards in P Deck (58):
1

an anxiety disorder marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations

panic disorder

2

the processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.

parallel processing

3

the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis.

parapsychology

4

the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body conserving its energy

parasympathetic nervous system

5

-the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; includes the sensory cortex.

parietal lobes

6

reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement,

partial reinforcement

7

an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.

passionate love

8

the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.

percepton

9

in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field

perceptual adaptation

10

perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent lightness, color, shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change.

perceptual constancy

11

a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another

perceptual set

12

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CN S) to the rest of the body.

peripheral nervous system

13

our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless

personal control

14

psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning

personality disorders

15

a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.

personality inventory

16

scan a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

PET

17

an Illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in succession.

phi phenomenon

18

an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.

phobia

19

in a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.

phoneme

20

a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued.

physical dependence

21

a tone's highness or lowness; depends on frequency

pitch

22

the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.

pituitary gland

23

in hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated

place theory

24

an inert substance or condition that may be administered instead of a presumed active agent, such as a drug, to see if it triggers the effects believed to characterize the active agent.

placebo

25

the brain's capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage (especially in children) and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development

plasticity

26

a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration, heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing changes).

polygraph

27

all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study

population

28

the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote conditions that enable individuals and communities to thrive

positive psychology

29

amnesia supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis; induced by the hypnotist's suggestion.

posthypnotic

30

a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors

posthypnotic suggestion

31

information that is not conscious but is retrievable into conscious awareness.

preconcious

32

the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior

predictive validity

33

an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action

prejudice

34

in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic

preoperational stage

35

an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need

primary reinforcer

36

the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible.

primary sex characteristics

37

the activation, often unconsciously of particular associations in memory

priming

38

the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

proactive interference

39

defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.

projection

40

a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics

projective test

41

positive, constructive, helpfu1 behavior The opposite of antisocial behavior

prosocial behavior

42

a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).

prototype

43

a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy

psychiatry

44

a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood

psychoactive drug

45

Freud's theory of personality that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions

psychoanalysis

46

Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences-and the therapist's interpretations of them - released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self insight.

psychoanalysis

47

a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions

psychological dependence

48

a “harmful dysfunction" in which behavior is judged to be atypical, disturbing, maladaptive, and unjustifiable

psychological disorder

49

the science of behavior and mental processes

psychology

50

the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior

psychopharmocology

51

the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them

psychophysics

52

literally, "mind-body" illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches. Note: This is distinct from hypochondriasis-misinterpreting normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease.

psychophysiological illness

53

the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones

psychosexual stages

54

surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior.

psychosurgery

55

an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties

psychotherapy

56

a psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions.

psychotic disorder

57

an event that decreases the behavior that it follows

punishment

58

the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters

pupil