Flashcards in S Deck (63):
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.
the theory that prejudice provides an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation)
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
a group of seven disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions.
nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.
secondary sex characteristics
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in the cocktail party effect.
according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential.
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
one's feelings of high or low self-worth
occurs when one person's belief about others leads one to act in ways that induce the others to appear to confirm the belief.
self fulfilling prophecy
a readiness to perceive oneself favorably
the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning.
the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment.
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness.
sensorineural hearing loss
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation.
-the area of the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations
the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste
the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system
-neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system.
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
serial position effect
the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weigh
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own gender (homosexual orientation) or the other gender (heterosexual orientation).
the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson-excitement plateau orgasm and resolution
sexual response cycle
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of a desired goal.
activated memory that holds a few items briefly--such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
short term memory
predicts how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus ("signal") amid background stimulation ("noise"). Assumes that there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue.
signal detection theory
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary reawakenings.
periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness- as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
social exchange theory
improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered
oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support.
social leadership group
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
social learning theory
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles.
somatic nervous system
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them.
the reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished conditioned response.
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested "standardization group."
the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet's original intelligence test.
a statistical criterion for rejecting the assumption of no differences in a particular study.
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines and cocaine) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
the retention of encoded information over time
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.
the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, catted stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life.
in psychoanalytic theory, the defense mechanism by which people rechannel their unacceptable impulses into socially approved activities.
below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness
the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
-the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
sympathetic nervous system
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft.
the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language