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Flashcards in S Deck (63):
1

a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.

savant syndrome

2

the theory that prejudice provides an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame

scapegoat theory

3

a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation)

scatterplot

4

a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

schema

5

a group of seven disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions.

schizophrenia

6

nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.

secondary sex characteristics

7

the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in the cocktail party effect.

selective attention

8

according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential.

self-actualization

9

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"

self concept

10

revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others

self disclosure

11

one's feelings of high or low self-worth

self-esteem

12

occurs when one person's belief about others leads one to act in ways that induce the others to appear to confirm the belief.

self fulfilling prophecy

13

a readiness to perceive oneself favorably

self-serving bias

14

the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words

semantic encoding

15

the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning.

semantics

16

the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment.

sensation

17

in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.

sensorimotor stage

18

hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness.

sensorineural hearing loss

19

diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation.

sensory adaptation

20

-the area of the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations

sensory cortex

21

the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste

sensory interaction

22

the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system

sensory memory

23

-neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system.

sensory neurons

24

our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.

serial position effect

25

the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weigh

set point

26

an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own gender (homosexual orientation) or the other gender (heterosexual orientation).

sexual orientation

27

the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson-excitement plateau orgasm and resolution

sexual response cycle

28

an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of a desired goal.

shaping

29

activated memory that holds a few items briefly--such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.

short term memory

30

predicts how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus ("signal") amid background stimulation ("noise"). Assumes that there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue.

signal detection theory

31

a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary reawakenings.

sleep apnea

32

periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness- as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation

sleep

33

the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement

social clock

34

the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.

social exchange theory

35

improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered

social facilitation

36

oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support.

social leadership group

37

the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.

social learning theory

38

the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.

social loafing

39

the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.

social psychology

40

a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.

social trap

41

the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles.

somatic nervous system

42

the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.

spacing effect

43

a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them.

split-brain

44

the reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished conditioned response.

spontaneous recovery

45

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.

standard deviation

46

defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested "standardization group."

standardization

47

the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet's original intelligence test.

stanford binet

48

a statistical criterion for rejecting the assumption of no differences in a particular study.

statistical significance

49

a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people

stereotype

50

drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines and cocaine) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.

stimulants

51

the retention of encoded information over time

storage

52

the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.

stranger anxiety

53

the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, catted stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging

stress

54

self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life.

subjective well-being

55

in psychoanalytic theory, the defense mechanism by which people rechannel their unacceptable impulses into socially approved activities.

sublimation

56

below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness

subliminal

57

the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.

superego

58

shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation

superordinate goals

59

a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.

survey

60

-the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.

sympathetic nervous system

61

the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft.

synapse

62

the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language

syntax

63

a type of counter conditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.

systematic desensitization