Flashcards in R Deck (33):
-assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings.
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.
a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response.
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm
defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated.
the tendency for extremes of unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward the average
regression toward the mean
the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself.
a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.
the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting.
the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep
rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring steep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding generalizes to other participants and circumstances.
a rule of thumb for judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information.
in psychoanalytic theory the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety laden material.
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; Skinner's term for behavior learned through classical conditioning
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.
a binocular cue for perceiving depth: The greater the disparity (difference) between the two images the retina receives of an object, the closer the object is to the viewer.
the process of getting information out of memory storage.
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond.
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
a baby's tendency when touched on the cheek, to open the mouth and search for the nipple