Antianginal Drugs Flashcards Preview

NCLEX > Antianginal Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Antianginal Drugs Deck (38):
0

Atenolol
(Functional Classification)

Antihypertensive, antianginal

1

Atenolol
(Chemical Classification)

Beta-Blocker, Beta1-, Beta2-blocker (high doses)

2

Atenolol
(Mechanism of Action)

Completely blocks stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptor within vascular smooth muscle; produces negative chronotropic activity (decreases rate of SA node discharge, increases recovery time), slows conduction of AV node, decreases heart rate, negative inotropic activity decreases O2 consumption in myocardium; decreases action of renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system at high doses, inhibits Beta2-receptors in bronchial system at higher doses

3

Atenolol
(Uses)

Mild to moderate hypertension, prophylaxis of angina pectoris; suspected or known MI (IV use); MI prophylaxis

4

Atenolol
(Contraindications)

Pregnancy (D), hypersensitivity to Beta-blockers, cardiogenic shock, 2nd- or 3rd-degree heart block, sinus bradycardia, cardiac failure, Raynaud's disease, pulmonary edema

5

Atenolol
(Side Effects)

CNS: Insomnia, Fatigue, Dizziness, Mental Changes, memory loss, hallucinations, depression, lethargy, drowsiness, strange dreams, catatonia
CV: PROFOUND HYPOTENSION, BRADYCARDIA, CHF, Cold Extremities, Postural Hypotension, 2nd- or 3rd-degree Heart Block
EENT: sore throat; dry, burning eyes; blurred vision; stuffy nose
ENDO: increase hypoglycemic response to insulin
GI: Nausea, Diarrhea, vomiting, MESENTERIC ARTERIAL THROMBOSIS, ISCHEMIC COLITIS
GU: impotence, decreased libido
HEMA: AGRANULOCYTOSIS, THROMBOCYTOPENIA PURPURA
INTEG: rash, fever, alopecia
RESP: BRONCHOSPASM, dyspnea, wheezing, pulmonary edema

6

Atenolol
(Nursing Considerations)

ASSESS:
-I&O, weight daily; watch for CHF (rales/crackles, jugular vein distention, weight gain, edema)
-Hypertension: BP, pulse q4hr; note rate, rhythm, quality; apical/radial pulse before administration; notify prescriber of any significant changes (<50 bpm); ECG
-Baselines in renal/hepatic studies before therapy begins

7

Atenolol
(Overdose Treatment)

Lavage, IV atropine for bradycardia, IV theophylline for bronchospasm, dextrose for hypoglycemia, digoxin, O2, diuretic for cardiac failure, hemodialysis

8

Diltiazem (Cardizem)
(Functional Classification)

Calcium Channel Blocker, antiarrhythmic class IV, antihypertensive

9

Diltiazem (Cardizem)
(Chemical Classification)

Benzothiazepine

10

Diltiazem (Cardizem)
(Mechanism of Action)

Inhibits calcium ion influx across cell membrane during cardiac depolarization; produces relaxation of coronary vascular smooth muscle, dilates coronary arteries, slows SA/AV node conduction times, dilates peripheral arteries

11

Diltiazem (Cardizem)
(Uses)

PO: Angina pectoris due to coronary artery spasm, hypertension
IV: atrial fibrillation, flutter, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia

12

Diltiazem (Cardizem)
(Contraindications)

Sick sinus syndrome, AV heart block, hypotension <90mmHg systolic, acute MI, pulmonary congestion, cardiogenic shock

13

Diltiazem (Cardizem)
(Side Effects)

CNS: Headache, Fatigue, Drowsiness, dizziness, depression, weakness, insomnia, tremor, paresthesia
CV: DYSRHYTHMIA, Edema, CHF, bradycardia, hypotension, palpitations, HEART BLOCK
GI: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, gastric upset, Constipation, increased LFTs
GU: nocturia, polyuria, ACUTE RENAL FAILURE
INTEG: Rash, flushing, photosensitivity, burning pruritus at inj site
RESP: rhinitis, dyspnea, pharyngitis

14

Diltiazem (Cardizem)
(Nursing Considerations)

ASSESS:
-CHF: dyspnea, weight gain, edema, jugular venous distention, rales; monitor I&O ratios daily, weight
-ANGINA: location, duration, alleviating factors, activity when pain starts
-DYSRHYTHMIAS: cardiac status: BP, pulse, respiration, ECG and intervals PR, QRS, QT; if systolic BP <50 bpm, hold dose, notify prescriber

15

Diltiazem (Cardizem)
(Overdose Treatment)

Atropine for AV block, vasopressor for hypotension

16

Isosorbide dinitrate and Isosorbide mononitrate
(Functional Classification)

Antianginal, Vasodilator

17

Isosorbide dinitrate and Isosorbide mononitrate
(Chemical Classification)

Nitrate

18

Isosorbide dinitrate and Isosorbide mononitrate
(Mechanism of Action)

Relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, which leads to decreased preload, afterload, which is responsible for decreasing left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and reducing cardiac oxygen demand

19

Isosorbide dinitrate and Isosorbide mononitrate
(Uses)

Treatment, prevention of chronic stable angina pectoris

20

Isosorbide dinitrate and Isosorbide mononitrate
(Contraindications)

Hypersensitivity to this product or nitrates; severe anemia, increased intracranial pressure, cerebral hemorrhage, acute MI

21

Isosorbide dinitrate and Isosorbide mononitrate
(Side Effects)

CNS: Vascular Headache, Flushing, Dizziness, weakness, faintness
CV: Postural Hypotension, tachycardia, COLLAPSE, syncope, palpitations
GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
INTEG: pallor, sweating, rash
MISC: twitching, hemolytic anemia, METHEMOGLOBINEMIA, tolerance

22

Isosorbide dinitrate and Isosorbide mononitrate
(Nursing Considerations)

ASSESS:
-ANGINAL PAIN: duration, time started, activity being performed, character
-BP, pulse, respirations during beginning therapy
-Tolerance if taken over long period
-Headache, lightheadedness, decreased BP; may indicate need for decreased dosage

23

Metoprolol (Lopressor)
(Functional Classification)

Antihypertensive, antianginal

24

Metoprolol (Lopressor)
(Chemical Classification)

Beta1-Blocker

25

Metoprolol (Lopressor)
(Mechanism of Action)

Lowers BP by Beta-blocking effects; reduces elevated renin plasma levels; blocks Beta2-adrenergic receptors in bronchial, vascular smooth muscle only at high doses; negative chronotropic effect

26

Metoprolol (Lopressor)
(Uses)

Mild to moderate hypertension, acute MI to reduce cardiovascular mortality, angina pectoris, NYHA class II, III heart failure

27

Metoprolol (Lopressor)
(Contraindications)

Hypersensitivity to Beta-blockers, cardiogenic shock, heart block (2nd, 3rd degree), sinus bradycardia, pheochromocytoma, sick sinus syndrome

28

Metoprolol (Lopressor)
(Side Effects)

CNS: Insomnia, Dizziness, mental changes, hallucinations, depression, anxiety, headaches, nightmares, confusion, fatigue
CV: Hypotension, BRADYCARDIA, CHF, Palpitations, dysrhythmias, CARDIAC ARREST, AV BLOCK, PULMONARY/PERIPHERAL EDEMA, CHEST PAIN
EENT: sore throat; dry, burning eyes
GI: Nausea, Vomiting, colitis, cramps, Diarrhea, constipation, flatulence, dry mouth, Hiccups
GU: impotence
HEMA: AGRANULOCYTOSIS, EOSINOPHILIA, THROMBOCYTOPENIA, PURPURA
INTEG: rash, purpura, alopecia, dry skin, urticaria, pruritus
RESP: BRONCHOSPASM, dyspnea, wheezing

29

Metoprolol (Lopressor)
(Nursing Considerations)

ASSESS:
-ECG directly when giving IV during initial treatment
-I&O, weight daily; check for CHF (weight gain, jugular venous distention, crackles, edema, dyspnea)
-BP during initial treatment, periodically thereafter; pulse q4hr; not rate, rhythm, quality
-Apical/radial pulse before administration; notify prescriber of any significant changes or pulse <50 bpm
-Baselines of renal, hepatic studies before therapy begins
-Skin turgor, dryness of mucous membranes for hydration status

30

Metoprolol (Lopressor)
(Overdose Treatment)

Lavage, IV atropine for bradycardia, IV theophylline for bronchospasm, digoxin, O2, diuretic for cardiac failure, hemodialysis, administer vasopressor

31

Nitroglycerin
(Functional Classification)

Coronary Vasodilator, antianginal

32

Nitroglycerin
Chemical Classification)

Nitrate

33

Nitroglycerin
(Mechanism of Action)

Decreases preload and afterload, which are responsible for decreasing left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, systemic vascular resistance; dilates coronary arteries, improves blood flow through coronary vasculature, dilates arterial and venous beds systemically

34

Nitroglycerin
(Uses)

Chronic stable angina pectoris, prophylaxis of angina pain, CHF, acute MI, controlled hypotension for surgical procedures, anal fissures

35

Nitroglycerin
(Contraindications)

Hypersensitivity to this product or nitrites; severe anemia, increased intracranial pressure, cerebral hemorrhage, closed-angle glaucoma, cardiac tamponade, cardiomyopathy, constrictive pericarditis

36

Nitroglycerin
(Side Effects)

CNS: Headache, Flushing, Dizziness
CV: Postural Hypotension, tachycardia, COLLAPSE, syncope, palpitations
GI: nausea, vomiting
INTEG: pallor, sweating, rash

37

Nitroglycerin
(Nursing Considerations)

ASSESS:
-PAIN: duration, time started, activity being performed, character
-Orthostatic BP, pulse prior to and after administration
-Tolerance if taken over long period
-Headache, lightheadedness, decreased BP; may indicate a need for decreased dosage