Antiemetic and Antinausea Drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antiemetic and Antinausea Drugs Deck (28):
0

Meclizine (Dramamine)
(Functional Classification)

Antiemetic, antihistamine, anticholinergic

1

Meclizine (Dramamine)
(Chemical Classification)

H1-receptor antagonist, piperazine derivative

2

Meclizine (Dramamine)
(Mechanism of Action)

Acts centrally by blocking chemoreceptor trigger zone, which in turn acts on vomiting center

3

Meclizine (Dramamine)
(Uses)

Vertigo, motion sickness

4

Meclizine (Dramamine)
(Contraindications)

hypersensitivity to cyclizines, shock

5

Meclizine (Dramamine)
(Side Effect)

CNS: Drowsiness, fatigue, restlessness, headache, insomnia
CV: hypotension
EENT: dry mouth, blurred vision
GI: nausea, anorexia, constipation, increased appetite
GU: urinary retention

6

Meclizine (Dramamine)
(Nursing Considerations)

ASSESS:
-VERTIGO/MOTION SICKNESS: nausea, vomiting after 1hr; assess vertigo periodically
-Signs of toxicity of other products, masking of symptoms of disease: brain tumor, intestinal obstruction
-Observe for drowsiness, dizziness, level of consciousness

7

Metoclopramide (Reglan)
(Functional Classification)

Cholinergic, antiemetic

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Metoclopramide (Reglan)
(Chemical Classification)

Central DOPamine receptor antagonist

9

Metoclopramide (Reglan)
(Mechanism of Action)

Enhances response to acetylcholine of tissue in upper GI tract, which causes the contraction of gastric muscle; relaxes pyloric, duodenal segments; increases peristalsis without stimulating secretions; blocks dopamine in chemoreceptor trigger zone of CNS

10

Metoclopramide (Reglan)
(Uses)

Prevention of nausea, vomiting induced by chemotherapy, radiation, delayed gastric emptying, gastroesophageal reflux

11

Metoclopramide (Reglan)
(Contraindications)

Hypersensitivity to this product, procaine, or procainamide; seizure disorder, pheochromocytoma, breast cancer (Prolactin dependent), GI obstruction

12

Metoclopramide (Reglan)
(Side Effects)

CNS: Sedation, Fatigue, Restlessness, Headache, Sleeplessness, Dystonia, dizziness, drowsiness, SUICIDAL IDEATION, SEIZURES, EPS, NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME; TARDIVE DYSKINESIA (>3MO, HIGH DOSES)
CV: hypotension, supraventricular tachycardia
GI: dry mouth, constipation, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea
GU: decreased libido, prolactin secretion, amenorrhea, galactorrhea
HEMA: NEUTROPENIA, LEUKOPENIA, AGRANULOCYTOSIS
INTEG: urticaria, rash

13

Metoclopramide (Reglan)
(Nursing Considerations)

ASSESS:
-EPS, tardive dyskinesia; more likely to occur in geriatric patients
-NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME: hyperthermia, change in BP, pulse, tachycardia, sweating, rigidity, altered consciousness
-Mental status: depression, anxiety, irritability
-GI complaints: nausea, vomiting, anorexia, constipation

14

Ondansetron (Zofran)
(Functional Classification)

Antiemetic

15

Ondansetron (Zofran)
(Chemical Classification)

5-HT3 receptor antagonist

16

Ondansetron (Zofran)
(Mechanism of Action)

Prevents nausea, vomiting by blocking serotonin peripherally, centrally, and in the small intestine

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Ondansetron (Zofran)
(Uses)

Prevention of nausea, vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy, radiotherapy; prevention of postoperative nausea, vomiting

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Ondansetron (Zofran)
(Contraindications)

Hypersensitivity; phenylketonuric hypersensitivity (oral disintegrating tab), torsades de pointes

19

Ondansetron (Zofran)
(Side Effects)

CNS: Headache, Dizziness, Drowsiness, Fatigue, EPS
GI: Diarrhea, Constipation, abdominal pain, dry mouth
MISC: rash, BRONCHOSPASM (rare), Musculoskeletal Pain, Wound Problems, Shivering, Fever, Hypoxia, Urinary Retention

20

Ondansetron (Zofran)
(Nursing Considerations)

ASSESS:
-Absence of nausea, vomiting during chemotherapy
-Hypersensitivity reaction: rash, bronchospasm (rare)
-EPS: shuffling gait, tremors, grimacing, rigidity periodically

21

Prochlorperazine
(Functional Classification)

Antiemetic, antipsychotic

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Prochlorperazine
(Chemical Classification)

Phenothiazine, piperazine derivative

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Prochlorperazine
(Mechanism of Action)

Decreases dopamine neurotransmission by increasing dopamine turnover through the blockade of the D2 somatodendritic autoreceptor in the mesolimbic system

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Prochlorperazine
(Uses)

Nausea, Vomiting, Psychotic Disorders

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Prochlorperazine
(Contraindications)

Hypersensitivity to phenothiazines, coma; infants, neonates, children <2yr; surgery

26

Prochlorperazine
(Side Effects)

CNS: NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME, Extrapyramidal Reactions, Tardive Dyskinesia, Euphoria, DEPRESSION, Drowsiness, restlessness, tremor, dizziness, headache
CV: CIRCULATORY FAILURE, TACHYCARDIA, hypotension, ECG changes
EENT: blurred vision
GI: nausea, vomiting, anorexia, dry mouth, diarrhea, constipation, weight loss, metallic taste, cramps
HEMA: AGRANULOCYTOSIS
MISC: impotence
RESP: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION

27

Prochlorperazine
(Nursing Considerations)

ASSESS:
-EPS: abnormal movement, tardive dyskinesia, akathisia
-VS, BP; check patients with cardiac disease more often
-NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME: seizures, hypo/hypertension, fever, tachycardia, dyspnea, fatigue, muscle stiffness, loss of bladder control; notify prescriber immediately
-CBC, LFTs during course of treatment; blood dyscrasias, hepatotoxicity may occur
-Respiratory status before, during, after administration of emetic; check rate, rhythm, character; respiratory depression can occur rapidly among geriatric or debilitated patients