Antilipemic Drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antilipemic Drugs Deck (28):
0

Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
(Functional Classification)

Antilipidemic

1

Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
(Chemical Classification)

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin)

2

Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
(Mechanism of Action)

Inhibits HMG-CoA reductase enzyme, which reduces cholesterol synthesis; high doses lead to plaque regression

3

Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
(Uses)

As adjunct for primary hypercholesterolemia (types Ia, Ib), dysbetalipoproteinemia, elevated triglyceride levels, prevention of CV disease by reduction of heart risk in those with mildly elevated cholesterol

4

Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
(Contraindications)

Pregnancy (X), breastfeeding, hypersensitivity, active hepatic disease

5

Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
(Side Effects)

CNS: headache, asthenia
EENT: lens opacities
GI: Abdominal Cramps, Constipation, Diarrhea, Flatus, Heartburn, dyspepsia, LIVER DYSFUNCTION, PANCREATITIS, nausea, increased serum transaminase
GU: impotence
INTEG: rash, pruritus, alopecia; photosensitivity (rare)
MISC: hypersensitivity
MS: arthralgia, myalgia, RHABDOMYOLYSIS
RESP: pharyngitis, sinusitis

6

Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
(Nursing Considerations)

ASSESS:
-HYPERCHOlESTEROLEMIA: diet, obtain diet history including fat, cholesterol in diet; cholesterol triglyceride levels periodically during treatment; check lipid panel 6-12wk after changing dose
-Hepatic studies q1-2mo, at initiation, 6,12wk after initiation or change in dose, periodically thereafter; AST, ALT, LFTs may be increased
-Renal studies in patients with compromised renal system: BUN, I&O ratio, creatinine
-Bowel status: constipation, stool softeners may be needed; if severe, add fiber, water to diet
-RHABDOMYOLYSIS: FOR MUSCLE PAIN, TENDERNESS, OBTAIN CPK BASELINE; IF MARKEDLY INCREASED, PRODUCT MAY NEED TO BE DISCONTINUED

7

Cholestyramine (Questran)
(Functional Classification)

Antilipemic

8

Cholestyramine (Questran)
(Chemical Classification)

Bile Acid Sequestrant

9

Cholestyramine (Questran)
(Mechanism of Action)

Absorbs, combines with bile acids to form insoluble complex that is excreted through feces; loss of bile acids lowers LDL, cholesterol levels

10

Cholestyramine (Questran)
(Uses)

Primary hypercholesterolemia (esp. type IIa/IIb hyperlipoproteinemia), pruritus associated with biliary obstruction

11

Cholestyramine (Questran)
(Contraindications)

Hypersensitivity; biliary obstruction; hyperlipidemia III, IV, V

12

Cholestyramine (Questran)
(Side Effects)

CNS: headache, dizziness, drowsiness, vertigo, tinnitus, anxiety
GI: Constipation, Abdominal Pain, Nausea, fecal impaction, hemorrhoids, flatulence, vomiting, steatorrhea, peptic ulcer
HEMA: BLEEDING, increased PT
INTEG: rash, irritation of perianal area, tongue, skin
META: decreased vit A, D, K, red cell folate content; HYPERCHLOREMIC ACIDOSIS
MS: muscle, joint pain

13

Cholestyramine (Questran)
(Nursing Considerations)

ASSESS:
-Cardiac glycoside level if both products administered
-For signs of vit A, D, K deficiency
-HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA: fasting LDL, HDL, total cholesterol, triglyceride levels, electrolytes if receiving extended therapy; diet history
-PRURITUS: for signs of itching
-Bowel pattern daily; increase bulk, water in diet for constipation; diarrhea may also occur

14

Niacin
(Functional Classification)

Vit B3, antihyperlipidemic

15

Niacin
(Chemical Classification)

Water-soluble vitamin

16

Niacin
(Mechanism of Action)

Needed for conversion of fats, protein, carbohydrates by oxidation reduction; acts directly on vascular smooth muscle, this causing vasodilation; reduces total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, triglycerides; increases HDL

17

Niacin
(Uses)

Pellagra, hyperlipidemias (types 4,5), peripheral vascular disease that presents a risk for pancreatitis

18

Niacin
(Contraindications)

Breastfeeding, hypersensitivity, peptic ulcer, hepatic disease, hemorrhage, severe hypotension

19

Niacin
(Side Effects)

CNS: paresthesias, headache, dizziness, anxiety
CV: postural hypotension, vasovagal attacks, dysrhythmias, vasodilation
EENT: blurred vision, ptosis
GI: nausea, vomiting, anorexia, JAUNDICE, HEPATOTOXICITY, diarrhea, peptic ulcer, dyspepsia, HEPATITIS
GU: hyperuricemia, GLYCOSURIA, HYPOALBUMINEMIA
INTEG: flushing, dry skin, rash, pruritus, itching, tingling

20

Niacin
(Nursing Considerations)

ASSESS:
-Cardiac status: rate, rhythm, quality; postural hypotension, dysrhythmias
-Nutritional status: liver, yeast, legumes, organ meat, lean poultry; fat in diet
-HEPATOTOXICITY: clay-colored stools, itching, dark urine, jaundice; hepatic studies: AST, ALT, bilirubin, uric acid, alk phos; blood glucose before and during treatment
-CNS symptoms: headache, paresthesias, blurred vision
-NIACIN DEFICIENCY: nausea, vomiting, anemia, poor memory, confusion, dermatitis
-HYPERLIPIDEMIA: for lipid, triglyceride, cholesterol level; obtain diet history

21

Simvastatin (Zocor)
(Functional Classification)

Antilipemic

22

Simvastatin (Zocor)
(Chemical Classification)

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor

23

Simvastatin (Zocor)
(Mechanism of Action)

Inhibits HMG-CoA reductase enzyme, which reduces cholesterol synthesis

24

Simvastatin (Zocor)
(Uses)

As an adjunct for primary hypercholesterolemia (types IIa, IIb), isolated hypertriglyceridemia (Frederickson type IV) and type III hyperlipoproteinemia, CAD, heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

25

Simvastatin (Zocor)
(Contraindications)

Pregnancy (X), breastfeeding, hypersensitivity, active hepatic disease

26

Simvastatin (Zocor)
(Side Effects)

CNS: headache
GI: nausea, constipation, diarrhea, dyspepsia, flatus, abdominal pain, LIVER DYSFUNCTION, PANCREATITIS
INTEG: rash, pruritus
MS: muscle cramps, myalgia, MYOSITIS, RHABDOMYOLYSIS, myopathy
RESP: upper respiratory tract infection

27

Simvastatin (Zocor)
(Nursing Considerations)

ASSESS:
-Diet history: fat consumption; baseline and lipid profile: LDL, HDL, TG, cholesterol
-Hepatic studies at baseline, after 4-6wk, periodically thereafter; AST, ALT, LFTs may increase
-RHABDOMYOLYSIS: muscle tenderness, increased CPK levels (10x above upper normal limit); therapy should be discontinued
-Renal studies in patients with compromised renal systems: BUN, I&O ratio, creatinine