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Flashcards in Antihypertensive Drugs Deck (31):
0

Captopril
(Functional Classification)

Antihypertensive

1

Captopril
(Chemical Classification)

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitor

2

Captopril
(Mechanism of Action)

Selectively suppresses renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; inhibits ACE; prevents conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II

3

Captopril
(Uses)

Hypertension, CHF, left ventricular dysfunction after MI, diabetic nephropathy

4

Captopril
(Contraindications)

Breastfeeding, children, hypersensitivity, heart block, potassium-sparing diuretics, bilateral renal artery stenosis, angioedema, Pregnancy (D)

5

Captopril
(Side Effects)

CNS: fever, chills
CV: Hypotension, postural hypotension, Tachycardia, angina
GI: loss of taste, increased LFT's
GU: impotence, dysuria, nocturia, proteinuria, NEPHROTIC SYNDROME, ACUTE REVERSIBLE RENAL FAILURE, polyuria, oliguria, urinary frequency
HEMA: NEUTROPENIA, AGRANULOCYTOSIS, PANCYTOPENIA, THROMBOCYTOPENIA, anemia
INTEG: rash, pruritus
MISC: ANGIOEDEMA, hyperkalemia
RESP: BRONCHOSPASM, Dyspnea, Cough

6

Captopril
(Nursing Considerations)

ASSESS:
-BLOOD DYSCRASIAS: blood studies: decreased platelets; WBC with differential at baseline and periodically q3mo; if neutrophils <1000/mm3, discontinue treatment (recommended with collagen-vascular or renal disease)
-HYPERTENSION: BP, pulse rates at baseline, frequently
-Renal studies: protein, BUN, creatinine; watch for raised levels, may indicate nephrotic syndrome; increased LFTs, uric acid; glucose may be increased
-Allergic reaction: rash, fever, pruritus, urticaria; discontinue product if antihistamines fail to help
-CHF: edema, dyspnea, wet crackles, increased BP, weight gain

7

Captopril
(Overdose Treatment)

0.9% NaCl IV/INF; hemodialysis

8

Clonidine
(Functional Classification)

Antihypertensive

9

Clonidine
(Chemical Classification)

Central alpha-adrenergic agonist

10

Clonidine
(Mechanism of Action)

Inhibits sympathetic vasomotor center in CNS, which reduces impulses in sympathetic nervous system; blood pressure, pulse rate, cardiac output decrease, prevents pain signal transmission in CNS by alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation of the spinal cord

11

Clonidine
(Uses)

Mild to moderate hypertension, used alone or in combination; severe pain in cancer patients (epidural)

12

Clonidine
(Contraindications)

Hypersensitivity; (epidural) bleeding disorders, anticoagulants

13

Clonidine
(Side Effects)

CNS: Drowsiness, Sedation, Headache, Fatigue, nightmares, insomnia, mental changes, anxiety, depression, hallucinations, delirium
CV: Orthostatic Hypotension, Palpitations, CHF, ECG abnormalities, sinus tachycardia
EENT: taste change, parotid pain
ENDO: hyperglycemia
GI: Nausea, Vomiting, Malaise, constipation, Dry Mouth
GU: impotence, dysuria, nocturia, gynecomastia
INTEG: Rash, alopecia, facial pallor, pruritus, hives, edema, burning papules, excoriation (transdermal patches)
MISC: withdrawal symptoms
MS: muscle, joint pain; leg cramps

14

Clonidine
(Nursing Considerations)

ASSESS:
-HYPERTENSION: BP, pulse; report significant changes
-OPIATE WITHDRAWAL (UNLABELED): fever, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, cramps, insomnia, shivering, dilated pupils
-CANCER PAIN: location, intensity, character, alleviating, aggravating factors at baseline and frequently
-Edema in feet, legs daily; monitor I&O; check for falling output
-ALLERGIC REACTION: rash, fever, pruritus, urticaria; product should be discontinued if antihistamines fail to help
-CHF: edema, dyspnea, wet crackle, BP
-Renal symptoms: polyuria

15

Clonidine
(Overdose Treatment)

Supportive treatment, administer tolazoline, atropine, DOPamine prn

16

Hydralazine
(Functional Classification)

Antihypertensive, direct-acting peripheral vasodilator

17

Hydralazine
(Chemical Classification)

Phthalazine

18

Hydralazine
(Mechanism of Action)

Vasodilates arteriolar smooth muscle by direct relaxation; reduction in blood pressure with reflex increases in heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output

19

Hydralazine
(Uses)

Essential hypertension; severe essential hypertension

20

Hydralazine
(Contraindications)

Hypersensitivity to hydralazine's, mitral valvular rheumatic heart disease, CAD

21

Hydralazine
(Side Effects)

CNS: Headache, Tremors, Dizziness, Anxiety, peripheral neuritis, depression, fever, chills
CV: Palpitations, Reflex Tachycardia, Angina, SHOCK, rebound hypertension, orthostatic hypotension
GI: Nausea, Vomiting, Anorexia, Diarrhea, constipation, paralytic ileus
GU: urinary retention, glomerulonephritis, hematuria
HEMA: LEUKOPENIA, AGRANULOCYTOSIS, anemia, THROMBOCYTOPENIA
INTEG: rash, pruritus, urticaria
MISC: nasal congestion, muscle cramps, Lupuslike Symptoms, flushing, edema, dyspnea

22

Hydralazine
(Nursing Considerations)

ASSESS:
-Cardiac status: BP q5min x 2hr, the q 1hr x 2hr, then q4hr; pulse, jugular venous distention q4hr
-Electrolytes, blood studies: K, Na, Cl, CO2, CBC, serum glucose, LE prep, ANA titer before, during treatment; assess for fever, joint pain, rash, sore throat (lupuslike symptoms); notify prescriber
-Weight daily, I&O
-Edema in feet, legs daily, skin turgor, dryness of mucous membranes for hydration status
-Crackles, dyspnea, orthopnea
-IV site for extravasation, rate
-Mental status: affect, mood, behavior, anxiety; check for personality changes

23

Hydralazine
(Overdose Treatment)

Administer vasopressors, volume expanders for shock; if PO, lavage or give activated charcoal, digitalization

24

Losartan (Cozaar)
(Functional Classification)

Antihypertensive

25

Losartan (Cozaar)
(Chemical Classification)

Angiotensin II receptor (type AT1) antagonist

26

Losartan (Cozaar)
(Mechanism of Action)

Blocks the vasoconstrictor and aldosterone-secreting effects of angiotensin II; selectively blocks the binding of angiotensin II to the AT1 receptor found in tissues

27

Losartan (Cozaar)
(Uses)

Hypertension, alone or in combination; nephropathy in type 2 diabetes; proteinuria; stroke prophylaxis for hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy

28

Losartan (Cozaar)
(Contraindications)

Hypersensitivity

29

Losartan (Cozaar)
(Side Effects)

CNS: Dizziness, Insomnia, anxiety, confusion, abnormal dreams, migraine, tremor, vertigo, headache, malaise, depression
CV: angina pectoris, 2nd-degree AV block, CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT, hypotension, MI. Dysrhythmias
EENT: blurred vision, burning eyes, conjunctivitis
GI: Diarrhea, Dyspepsia, anorexia, constipation, dry mouth, flatulence, gastritis, vomiting
GU: impotence, nocturia, urinary frequency, UTI, RENAL FAILURE
HEMA: anemia, THROMBOCYTOPENIA
INTEG: alopecia, dermatitis, dry skin, flushing, photosensitivity, rash, pruritus, sweating, ANGIOEDEMA
META: gout
MS: cramps, myalgia, pain, stiffness
RESP: Cough, Upper Respiratory Infection, congestion, dyspnea, bronchitis

30

Losartan (Cozaar)
(Nursing Considerations)

ASSESS:
-BP with position changes, pulse before and periodically during treatment; note rate, rhythm, quality
-Baselines of renal, hepatic studies before therapy begins and periodically thereafter
-Skin turgor, dryness of mucous membranes for hydration status
-Angioedema: facial swelling, dyspnea, wheezing; may occur rapidly; tongue swelling (rare)
-CHF: jugular venous distention; edema in feet/legs, weight daily
-BLOOD DYSCRASIAS: thrombocytopenia, anemia (rare)
-Pregnancy before starting treatment: pregnancy (D) 2nd/3rd trimester