Atherosclerosis, HDL and LDL Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Atherosclerosis, HDL and LDL Deck (15)
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1

How does the LDL get modified?

1. oxidation

2. glycosylation

2

Name 4 pro-inflammatory cytokines.

1. TNF-alpha

2. IL-1

3. IL-6

4. IFN

3

Foam cells and T-lymphocytes within the plaque cause
______ secretion and activation of tissue factors.

matric metalloproteinase (MMP)

4

What is cholesterol for?

– used for synthesis and repair of cell membranes and organelles

– precursor of steroid hormones

5

What are triglycerides for?

a fuel source for muscle use and adipose tissue storage

6

What is LDL mostly comprised of?

cholesterol

7

What is HDL mostly comprised of?

protein

8

What regulates LDL steady-state?

the liver

9

How do statins stabilize plaques?

• Reduction in lipid content of atheromatous plaque core
• Decrease in inflammatory cells (macrophages and T-lymphocytes)
• Decreased MMP and tissue factor activation
• Decreased propensity for plaque rupture
• Decrease in thrombogenesis
• Regression of atherosclerosis

10

What is the average LDL-C in the US?

130 mg/dl

11

What are the 4 major statin benefit groups?

1. Individuals with known clinical ASCVD

2. Individuals with LDL ≥ 190 mg/dl

3. Individuals with diabetes (>40 yo and LDL>70)

4. Individuals (>40 yo, LDL>70) without ASCVD or diabetes who have an estimated 10-year ASCVD risk ≥ 7.5%

12

What are the 2 high intensity statins?

1. atorvastatin

2. rosuvastatin

13

What are the 5 low-intensity statins?

1. simvastatin

2. pravastatin

3. lovastatin

4. fluvastatin

5. pitavastatin

14

What is severe hypertriglyceridemia associated with?

acute pancreatitis

15

What does HDL do?

removes” cholesterol from periphery; antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects