Breast Cancer Wrap Up Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Breast Cancer Wrap Up Deck (21):
1

Epithelial Cell Proliferation Regulation

- Regulation of signalling pathways (EGF, FGF, BMP/TGFB, Wnt, Hedgehog, Notch)
-Regulation by integrin signaling
-Hormone levels (estrogen and progesterone)
-Presence of committed transit amplifying daughter cells

2

In Carcinoma, cell proliferation affected by

genetic mutations, gene duplication, incorrect signaling, and hormonal status.
All lead to tumor formation.

3

DCIS - characteristics

lesions more than 2mm and/or is present in more than one duct
proliferating cell DO NOT cross or destroy basal lamina of the duct (a.k.a In Situ)

4

Grade 2 - name of disease at this grade

Infiltrating ductal carcinoma

5

Epithelial sheets - characteristic

-Contiguous
-rests on and are attached to basal lamina

6

Invasive behavior of cancer cells due to...

Intergrin signaling
Laminin
pRb
p53

7

Intergrin Signaling -, action, effect

down regulates E-Cadherin - disrupts cell-cell adhesion allowing augmented cell motility
Upregulates matrix metalloproteinases - results in degradation of matrix components

8

Laminin & cancer

abnormal expression promoted migration

9

Retinoblastoma protein, fxn

Controls cell cyle

10

pRb, hypophosphorylated, hyperphosphorylated

Hypo - arrests cell cycle
hyper - allows cell cycle progression

11

Molecules that phosphorylate pRb

Cyclin and CDKs

12

p53 , fxn, mutation result

Arrest the cycle at G1 and G2 checkpoints if the DNA is damaged. Triggers apoptosis if DNA not repaired.
Mutations bypass arrests and lead to cancer.

13

BRCA 1 & 2 - fxn, numbers

participate in DNA repair, mutations are in 5-10% breast cancer (failure to repair or undergo apoptosis)

14

ATM protien

.

15

Angiogenesis, due to

VEGF upregulation

16

Chemotherapy agents - fxn, types

Inhibits cell proliferation or DNA synth
Topoisomerase inhibitors
Alkylating agents
Anti-folates
Anti-Microtubles

17

ER and PR receptors - location

cytoplasm (inside cell)

18

Estrogen effect in Cancer, examples of treatment

stimulates cell proliferation
therefore, treatment = decrease estrogen
I.e. tamoxifen

19

HER2 location

membrane outside cell

20

Anti Her2 treatments

Trastuzumab, Pertuzumab, Trastuzumab - DM1

21

Anti-carcinogenic agents

Anthrocycline
Taxol
Aromatase Inhibitors
Tamoxflin