Endocrine Regulation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine Regulation Deck (20):
1

Rb

Hypophospholyrated Rb is growth suppresive (cell cycle halted)

2

Paracrine systems

Employ hormones that DIFFUSE short distances to affect neighboring cell.
Also circulated throughout body at lower concentrations

3

Autocrine systems

Employ hormone to influence its own behavior
SAME CELL

4

Neuroendocrine and synaptic systems

release a chemical messenger that diffuses only a very short distance to neighbor

5

Justacrine signaling

cell to cell contact
through membranes or connexin molecules

6

Cytokines - def. , #

chemical messengers that coordinate the responses of the immune system. Can behave anyhow.
12

7

The body will try to keep glucose related variables _______

Constant

8

How does one get a higher response?

More receptors
Higher concentration of ligands

9

Messenger molecules, types, function

CM1 (membrane), CM2 (inside)
must bind to an appropriate receptor

10

Ultimate effect of messengers

Bind to the receptor to change enzyme activity in cell

11

How does one terminate messenger activity?

1. Destroy ligand
2. Desensitize receptor, internalize receptor ligand complex
3. Internalize receptor ligand complex and destroy complex or just ligand/recycle receptor

12

Trophic effects

Promotes another glands health and growth w/o necessarily stimulating release of that hormone

13

Permissive effect

Presence of one hormone in a concentration greater than some threshold is required for second hormone to express its effect

14

Water and Lipid Solubility
Proteins
Steroids
Ameines

Proteins - No Solubility - LIPIDS
Proteins - High Solubility - WATER
Steriods - High Solubility - LIPIDS
Steroids - No Solubility - WATER
Amines - No Solubility - LIPIDS
Amines - Low Solubility - WATER

15

Effects of Solubity

Can cross cell membrane - binds to Mobile Receptor - alter gene expression
Cannot cross cell membrane - binds to Membrane Receptor - triggers cascade to alter enxyme activity

16

Diuranal

Hormones level variation throughout day
Peaks early morning, lowest level @ 12am-4am

17

Kinds of stimuli that cause release of hormones

Other hormones
Solutes
Physical stimuli
Neural actiity

18

Hormonal Concentrations v electrolyte concentration

nanamolar, millimolar

19

Neurons - use, act on ..., speed, concentrations

Neurotransmitters,
Other neurons, muscle cells and some gland cells
Fast
Locally high but little reach the rest of body

20

How does cytokine differ from hormone?

Produced by wide variety of cells all over the body while hormones are typically produced by a specific set of cells found in an endocrine organ
Present in concentrations three order of magnitude smaller than hormones