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Flashcards in Intracellular Signaling Deck (11):
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Intracellular signal transduction

process by which information detected at the surface of a cell is transferred to a signal inside the cell that triggers a specific response

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Agonist

ligand that activates signal transduction

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Antagonist

ligand that prevents signal transduction

3

Cell-surface receptors

binding sites for large molecules or molecules that are too hydrophilic to cross target cell membrane

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Intracellular receptors

for small hydrophobic molecules that readily permeate plasma membrane

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Binding of molecule to receptor - action

activate the first intracellular molecule in the cascade called the second messenger
change the electrical potential of the membrane
activate the enzyme cascade involving protein kinases, protein phosphatases or proteases

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Classes of cell surface recptors

Ligand gated
Enzyme linked
Cytokine
G-protein coupled

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Enzyme effectors

protein kinases
protein phosphatases
non-receptor tyrosine kinases
adenylate and guanylate cyclase

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Kinase

enzyme that phosphorylates proteins (most commonly serine, threonine, or tyrosine)

9

Phosphotase

removes phosphate and inactivate proteins

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Termination of signal transduction

reducing agonist availability
internalizing and degrading agonist-receptor complex
modifying the receptor to inactivate it