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Flashcards in Structure of Muscle Tissue X Deck (41):
1

Muscle Fxns

Movements
Support
Heat

2

Muscle Classification

Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth
Striated/Non-Striated
Voluntary/ Non-Voluntrary

3

Striated Muscle

Skeletal
Cardiac

4

Involuntary Muscle - types, control

Cardiac
Smooth
Autonomic Nervous System (vs. Cerebral Cortex)

5

Muscle levels (Macro->Micro)

Muscle -> Muscle Fascicle -> Fiber -> Myofibrils -> Sarcomere -> Actin (thin) & Myosin (thick)

6

Epimsyium
**

dense irregular CT surrounding - all fascicles that constitute a muscle-

7

Perimysium
**

dense irregular CT surrounding - individual fascicles -

8

Endomysium
**

Reticular fibers surround - individual muscle fibers

9

CT layers on muscle - types, fxn

Epimysium, Perimysium, Endomysium
Conduit for circulatory and nervous supply to muscle

10

Thin Filaments - COmponents

Actin
Tropomyosin
Troponin Complex

11

Tropomyosin
**

protein - forms double helical structure lying in the groove of actin helix. Acts with troponin complex to regulate myosin- actin binding

12

Troponin complex - components/fxns
**

TnI - actin binding protein - prevent actin to myosin
TnT - tropomyosin binding protein - troponin complex to actin
TnC - calcium binding protein for contraction

13

Thick Filaments - components

Myosin Heavy Chain
Myosin Light Chain 1
Myosin Light Chain 2

14

Myosin Heavy Chain - def, fxn
**

protein with alpha helical 'rod' and globular 'head'
binds ATP and actin

15

Myosin Light chain 1 & 2 - fxn

phosphorylation helps regulate calcium stimulation of contraction. (smooth muscle)

16

Sacromere - Components

Z line/disc
I band
A band
H band
M-line

17

Z line

anchor for actin

18

M line

center of sacromere
anchor for myosin

19

I band

thin filaments NOT overlapping with thick filaments
light staining

20

A band

length Myosin
thick filament and overlapping thin filaments
dark staining

21

H band

thick filament NOT overlapped by thin filaments
straddles center

22

Effect of Contraction on sacromere components

I and H bands shorten
Z lines move together (towards M center)
A DOES NOT change

23

Transverse Tubeles - def., fxn
***

Tubular invagination of the muscle cell plasma membrane closely aligned with cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum
T-tuble allows for changes in membrane electrical potentials to reach SR (a Ca2+ reservoir) thereby regulating calium concnetration anf nuscle contraction

24

Triad
**

triple structure consisting of two terminal cisternae flanking a T-Tubule at the A-I band junction

25

neuromuscular junction - def, a.k.a
**

synaptic connection between a motor axon and the muscle fiber
motor end plate

26

junctional folds - def

where axon terminates on the muscle cell

27

Denervation Atrophy

loss of stimulation to the muscle cell at the neuromuscular junction leading to muscle atrophy

28

Muscle spindle - fxn, sturcture, significance
**

Detect the amount of stretch of a muscle
Basis of stretch reflexes
Modified muscle fibers inside inner of two capsules allows for proprioception

29

Hypertrophy - action, affected by
**

increases the size of myofibrils and the number of myofibrils per muscle cell
Age
Nutrition
Hormones

30

Myasthenia gravis
**

autoimmune disease with progressive muscular weakness and atrophy
reduction in # of ACH receptors in sarcolemma at NMJ

31

Muscular Dystrophy
**

congenital muscle disease
Severe weakness atrophy and destruction of muscle fibers
caused by genetic mutations in transmembrane proteins of dystrophin-glycoprotein complex

32

Cardiac Muscle - components
**

one centrally located nucleus
Intercalated disks
Dyads
Increased mitochondria, lipid droplets, glycogen and myoglobin
contraction controlled by both autonomic nervous system and circulating horones

33

Intercalated Disks - fxn
**

highly specialized attachments that join cardiac muscle fibers together

34

Junctional Complexes in Cardiac Muscle
**

Fasciae Adherens
Maculae Adherens
Gap Junctions

35

Smooth Muscle - components
**

Fusiform
Lack of cross-striations and T-tubules
Single centrally located nucleus

36

Smooth Muscle - locations

tubuar organs - lining
iris and ciliary body of the eye
scrotum
blood vessels
hair follicles

37

Gap Junctions in Smooth muscle - fxn

allow intercellular communication regulating contraction of sheets

38

Smooth muscle capable of hyperthrophy and hyperplasia
**

KNOW

39

Regenration in muscle
**

Skeletal - Yes
Smooth - Sort of
Cardiac - None

40

Promotion of Muscle Fiber Shorterning

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41

Hyperplaisia

Increase in cell number
Smooth muscle capable of hyperplasia and hypertrophy