Flashcards in Carcinogenesis I Deck (19):
What are aflatxoins and what cancer do they casue?
The can cause HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma)
these are toxins derived from aspergillus, which can contaminate stored grains.
What are alkylating agents and what cancer do they cause?
casue leukemia and lymphoma
side effect of chemo
What cancers are caused by alcohol?
squamous cell CA of the oropharynx and upper esophagus, pancreatic carcinoma (can also casue chronic pancreatitis), and hepatocellular carcinoma (makes cirrhosis first)
What is arsenic and what cancer do they cause?
squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, lung cancer, and angiosarcoma of liver
arsenic is present in cigarrette smoke
What cancers are caused by asbestos?
lung cancer and mesothelioma
remember, pts exposed to asbestos are more likely to get lung CA than mesothelioma
What cancers are caused by cigarette smoke?
Carcinoma of the oropharynx, esophagus, lungs, kidney, bladder, and pancreas
urothelium: is highly susceptible: carcinogens get collected in the kidney and then hang out in the urinary system for a long time
this is the most common carcinogen worldwide
polycyclic hydrocarbons are the most important carcinogens
What cancers are caused by nitrosamines?
stomach carcinoma- esp. the INTESTINAL type
found in smoked foods
What cancers are casued by naphthylamine/ aromatic amines?
urothelial carcinoma of the bladder- from cigarette smoke
What cancers are caused by vinyl chloride?
casues angiosarcoma of the liver
occupational exposure- for ppl who may PVC for use in pipes
What cancers are caused by nickel, chromium, beryllium, or silica?
What cancers are caused by EBV? What kinds of patients?
nasopharyngeal carcinoma (classically, a Chinese male or african person, presents as a neck mass); Burkitt lymphoma, and CNS lymphoma in AIDS (and hodgkin lymphoma)
What cancers are caused by HHV-8? What kinds of patients?
Causes kaposi sarcoma (tumor of endothelial cells- raised purple plaques on the skin):
1. eastern european males: excise the lesions
2. AIDS pts: treat the HIV
3. Transplant patients: reduce immunosuppression
(can also cause body cavity fluid B-cell lymphoma)
What cancers are caused by HBV and HCV?
What cancers are caused by HTLV-1?
adult t cell leukemia/lymphoma
What kinds of cancers are caused by ionizing radiation? What is ionizing radiation? What is the mechanism?
AML, CML, and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
ionizing radiation: nuclear reactor accidents
mechanism via hydroxyl free radicals
What cancers are caused by nonionizing radiation? what is non-ionizing radiation? What is the mechanism?
UVB sunlight is most important
associated with basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma
results in formation of pyrimidine dimers in DNA, which are normally excised by restriction endonuclease (lack of functional restriction endonucleases casues xeroderma pigmentosum)
What cancers are caused by liver fluke?
What cancers are caused by schistosoma haematobium?
sqauamous cell bladder cancer