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Flashcards in Completion of Eye pathology Deck (13):

Draw the pathway for aqueous humor. include waht produces it, and receptors on the muscles

see pg 478


What is glaucoma?

optic disc atrophy with characteristic cupping, usually with increased intraocular pressure and porgressive visual field loss


What is open angle glaucoma? types? painful/painless

glaucoma that isn't caused by blocked aqueous flow through the pupil. painless
May be primary (cause unknown) or secondary (d/t blocked trabecular meshwork that collects humor from the anterior chamber to the canal of schlemm. may be bloced by WBCs, RBCs, or retinal elements)


risk factors for open angle glaucoma

age, Af am race, family hx


primary closed angle glaucoma

enlargement or forward movement of the lens against the central iris leading to obstruction of normal aqueous flow through the pupil. the fluid builds up behind the iris,which pushes the iris against the cornea and impedes flow through the trabecular meshwork.


what is secondary closed angle glaucoma

hypoxia from retinal disease (like DM, vein occlusion) induces vasoproliferation in the iris that contracts the angle


What are clinical characteristics of chronic closure glaucoma? painful/painless

asymptomatic with damage to the optic nerve and peripheral vision. no pain.


acute narrow angle glaucoma: pathophysiology, painful/painless

true ophthalmic emergency. incr. intraocular pressure pushes the iris forward and the angle closes abruptly. it will be PAINFUL with sudden vision loss, halos around lights hard eyes, and frontal headache NO epinephrine


What drugs are contraindicated in acute narrow angle glaucoma? Why?

no epinephrine- mydriatic effects will further close the angle.


What is a cataract? painful/painless

painless, often bilateral opacification of the lens causing a decr. in vision.


risk factors for cataracts

age, smoking, EtOH, excessive sun, prolonged corticosteroids, classic galactosemia, galactokinase deficiency, DM, trauma, infection


What are some findings on exam that would indicate papilledema?

enlarged blind spot and elevated optic disc


How does mydriasis occur? decribe the neurons involved

dilation: sympathetic function
1st neuron: hypothalamus to ciliospinal center of budge (C8-T2) (remember, sympathetics are thoracic)
2nd neuron: exit at T1 to sup. cervical ganglion
3rd neruon: plexus along the internal carotid, through cavernous sinus; enters the orbit as the long ciliary nerve to the pupillary dilator muscles

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