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C3 deficiency

increases risk of severe, recurrent pyogenic sinus and resp. tract infections. Incr. susceptibility to type III hypersensitivity. (this is basically a total complement deficiency, so you will have more infections, more reliance of PMNs, and more reliance on antibodies)


DAF deficiency

DAF helps prevent complement activation of self-cells
DAF deficiency causes complement-mediated lysis of RBCs and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria


What is the mnemonic for cytokines?

Hot T-bone stEAK
IL-1: fever
IL-2: T cell stimulation
IL-3: stimulates bone marrow
IL-4: IgE ( and IgG) class switching
IL-5: IgA production and eosinophil growth and differentiation
IL-6 aKute phase protein production


What does IL-1 do? Who secretes IL-1?

secreted by macrophages
fever, promotes acute inflammation, cuases endothelium to express adhesion molecs, recruits leukocytes


What does IL-6 do? Who secretes it?

fever, acute phase proteins
made by Th2 cells and macrophages


What does IL-8 do? Who secretes it?

attract neutrophils


What does IL-12 do? Who secretes it?

activates differentiation of T cells to Th1 cells. activates NK cells. Secreted by macrophages (and b cells)


What does TNF-alpha do?

mediates septic shock. activates endothelium. recruits leukocytes and causes vascular leak


What does IL-2 do

stimulates T cell growth. esp. important for CD8 t cells.


What does IFN gamma do?

antiviral and anti-tumor properties. actives NK cells. increases MHC expression and antigen presentation.


What does IL-4 do?

differentiation into Th2 cells, promotes B cell growth and class switching to IgE and IgG.


What does IL-5 do?

enhances class swithcing to IgA and stimulates the growth and differention of eosinophils


What does IL-10 do?

modulates inflammatory response. inhibits T cells. similar to TGF-beta


What are IFN alpha and beta?

part of innate host against viruses. they are synthesized by viral infected cells and act locally on uninfected cells to prime them for viral defense. Primed cells respond to viral dsRNA by degrating viral/host mRNA and inhibiting viral/host protein synthesis. This causes apoptosis but helps halt viral spread.


How do superantigens work? Who makes superantigens?

superantigens are made by S. pyrogenes and S. aureus (S. aureas does TSS, S. pyrogenes does TSS-like syndrome). these crosslink the beta region of the T cell receptor to the MHC class II molecule on ANY APC. This can cause a huge cytokine storm.


For which diseases do we treat people by giving passive immunity?

tetanus toxin, botulinum toxin, HBV, and Rabies.
we may give combined passive and active immunizations for HBV or rabies.

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