Flashcards in thyroid neoplasia Deck (15):
classic presentation of thyroid neoplasia
distinct, solitary nodule
thyroid nodules more likely to be benign than malignant
radioactive uptake studies and thyroid cancer
incr. in graves or nodular goiter
decreased uptake in adenoma and carcinoma
biopsy of thyroid method
fine needle aspiration
benign prolif of follicles surrounded by fiborus capsule. usually non-functional but rarely can secrete hormone
types of thyroid cancer
papillar, follicular, medullary, anaplastic
papillary carcinoma: risk factors, and importance
most common type of thyroid carcinoma
exposure to ionizing radiation in childhood is a major risk factor.
also with RET and BRAF mutations.
papillary carcionoma histo
orphan annie nuclei- white clearing, nuclear grooves. may see psammoma bodies (concentric layered calcifications)
papillary carcinoma spread and progonsis
often spreads to the cervical lymph nodes
good prognosis even when it spreads
malignant prolif of follicles surrounded by fibrous capsule, but there is invasion through the capsule in carcinoma. Fine needle biopsy can't distinguish btw follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma.
follicular carcinoma spread and prognosis
generally, metastasis occurs hematogenously
(usually carcinoma spreads locally, so this is an exception. others carcinomas that spread hematogneously: renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcionoma, choriocarcinoma).
malignant proliferation of parafollicular c cells. associated with high levels of cacitonin produced by tumor. may lead to hypocalcemia
some calcitonin may deposit within the tumor as local amyloidosis.
medullary carcinoma histo
malignant cells in an amyloid stroma
familial cases of medullary carcionma of the thyroid
MEN2A and MEN2B: neoplasia in multiple endocrine organs
often associated with mutations in the RET oncogene. if there is a RET mutation, you should remove the thyroid prophylactically
undifferentiated malignant tumor of the thyroid classically seen in the elderly
often invades local structures leading to dysphagia or resp. compromise