thyroid neoplasia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in thyroid neoplasia Deck (15):

classic presentation of thyroid neoplasia

distinct, solitary nodule
thyroid nodules more likely to be benign than malignant


radioactive uptake studies and thyroid cancer

incr. in graves or nodular goiter
decreased uptake in adenoma and carcinoma


biopsy of thyroid method

fine needle aspiration


follicular adenoma

benign prolif of follicles surrounded by fiborus capsule. usually non-functional but rarely can secrete hormone


types of thyroid cancer

papillar, follicular, medullary, anaplastic


papillary carcinoma: risk factors, and importance

most common type of thyroid carcinoma
exposure to ionizing radiation in childhood is a major risk factor.
also with RET and BRAF mutations.


papillary carcionoma histo

orphan annie nuclei- white clearing, nuclear grooves. may see psammoma bodies (concentric layered calcifications)


papillary carcinoma spread and progonsis

often spreads to the cervical lymph nodes
good prognosis even when it spreads


follicular carcionoma

malignant prolif of follicles surrounded by fibrous capsule, but there is invasion through the capsule in carcinoma. Fine needle biopsy can't distinguish btw follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma.


follicular carcinoma spread and prognosis

generally, metastasis occurs hematogenously
(usually carcinoma spreads locally, so this is an exception. others carcinomas that spread hematogneously: renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcionoma, choriocarcinoma).


medullary carcionma

malignant proliferation of parafollicular c cells. associated with high levels of cacitonin produced by tumor. may lead to hypocalcemia
some calcitonin may deposit within the tumor as local amyloidosis.


medullary carcinoma histo

malignant cells in an amyloid stroma


familial cases of medullary carcionma of the thyroid

MEN2A and MEN2B: neoplasia in multiple endocrine organs
often associated with mutations in the RET oncogene. if there is a RET mutation, you should remove the thyroid prophylactically


anaplastic carcinoma

undifferentiated malignant tumor of the thyroid classically seen in the elderly
often invades local structures leading to dysphagia or resp. compromise
poor prognosis


complications of thyroidectomy

hoarseness (recurrent laryngeal nerve damage), hypocalcemia (removal of parathyroids), and transection of the inferior thyroid artery

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