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Flashcards in pathology odds and ends Deck (15):

What is chromatolysis?

process involving the cell body following axonal injury. changes reflect an increase in protein synthesis in an effort to repair a damaged axon. It is characterized by round cellular swelling, displacement of the nucleus to the periphery, and dispersion of nissl substance throughout the cytoplasm (loss of nissl bodies)


What are common sites of calcium deposition in metastatic calcification?

sites that loos acid quickly: interstium of kidney, lungs, and gastric mucosa


What is inhalation injury?

most common pulm complication after exposure to fire. inhalation of products of compsution causes chemical tracheobronchitis, edema, and pneumonia


What is the role of metalloproteins in wound healing?

tissue remodeling


What is ESR?

erythrocyte sedimentation rate. products of inflammation, like fibrinogen, coat RBCs and cause aggregation. When aggregated, RBCs fall at a faster rate within the test tube.


What are some common causes of increased ESR?

most anemias, infections, inflammation (ie. temporal arteritis), cancers like multiple myeloma, pregnancy, autoimmune disorders


What are some common causes of decreased ESR?

sickle cell disease (altered shape prevents clumping and sedimentation), polycythemia (extra RBCs "dilute" aggregation factors), and congestive heart failure


What is iron poisoining? Who is most susceptible? What is the mechanism? Treatment?

one of the leading causes of fatality from toxicologic agents in kids. causes cell death from peroxidation of membrane lipids. treat with chelation like IV deferoxamine or oral deferasirox and dialysis


What are the acute symptoms of iron poisoning?

nausea, vomiting, gastric bleeding, lethargy


What are the chronic symptoms of iron poisonig?

metabolic acidosis, scarring leading to GI obstruction


What is lipofusin?

yellow brown pigment associated with normal aging. formed by oxidation and polymerization of autophagocytosed organellar membranes. may be depositied in heart, liver, kidney, eye.


What is P-glycoprotein?

aka multidrug resistant protein 1. expressed by some cancers, like colon and liver, to pump out toxins, including chemotherapeutics.


What is anaplasia?

loss of structural differentiation and function of cells such that they resemble primitive cells of the same tissue. often equated with undifferentiated malignant neoplasms. may see giant cells with single large nucleus or several nuclei


What is desmoplasia?

fibrous tissue formation in response to neoplasms. eg. linitis plastica in diffuse stomach cancer


What factors mediate cachexia?

TNF-alpha, IFN gamma, and IL-6

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