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Flashcards in Dementia Deck (14):
1

What genetic defects are associated with early onset Alzheimers disease? What chromosomes

APP (chromosome 21), presenilin-1 (chromosme 14), and presinilin 2 (Chromosome 1)

2

What genetic defects are associated with late on set Alzhemiers?

ApoE4 (chromosome 19)

3

What genes are protective against Alzheimer?

ApoE2

4

What are the extracellular pathologic/histo changes associated with Alzheimer?

senile plaques: extracellular beta amyloid core that may cause amyloid angiopathy
this can lead to intracranial hemorrhage.
amyloid beta is synthesized by cleavage of the APP (amyloid precursor protein)

5

What are the intracellular pathologic/histo changes associated with Alzheimer?

neurofibrillary tangles: intracellular, hyperphosphorylated tau protein. this is made of cytoskeletal elements; tangles correlate with the degree of dementia

6

What are key features of pick disease?

dementia, aphasia, parkinsonian aspects with a change in personality. spares the parietal lobe and posterior 2/3 of superior temporal gyrus

7

What are pick bodies?

spherical tan protein aggregates with frontotemporal atrophy.

8

What histologic features are associated with lewy body dementia?

alpha-synuclein defect

9

What are the symptoms of creutzfeldt-jakob disease?

rapidly progressive (weeks to months) dementia with myoclonus)

10

What pathology would be seen in creutzfeldt jakob disease?

spongiform cortex
see prions (PrP c to PtP sc sheet- this is a beta pleated sheet resistant to proteases

11

What vitamin deficiencies can cause dementia?

B1, B3, or B12

12

What are the drugs available for Alzheimer disease?

memantine; donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine

13

How does memantine work? what would you see with an overdose?

NMDA receptor antagonist (glutamate receptor antagonist). this helps prevent excitotoxicity medaited by Ca2+.
causes dizziness, confusion, and hallucinations if overdosed.

14

How do donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine work? Toxcity?

AChE inhibitors.
toxicity: nausea, dizziness, insomnia

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