Flashcards in brain tumors Deck (18):
Glioblastoma: clinical and gross features
common, highly malignant primary brain tumor with 1 yr median survival. found in the cerebral hemispheres, but can cross the corpus callosum (butterfly glioma).
stain cells for GFAP. this is an astrocytoma.
may see pseudopalisading and pleiomorphic tumor cells with border central areas of necrosis and hemorrhage
Meningoma: clinical and gross features
common, typically benign primary brain tumor. most often occurs in the convexities of hemispheres near the surface of the brain and in the parasagital region. it arises from the arachnoid cells, is extra-axial (external to the brain parenchyma, and may have a dural attachment. often asymptomatic, though it may present with seizures of focal neuro signs
resection and/or radiosurgery
spindle cells concentrically arranged in a whorled pattern, psommoma bodies
Hemangioblastoma: clinical features
usually cerebellar. associated with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome when found with retinal angiomas. can produce EPO and cause a secondary polycythemia
closely arranged, thin-walled capillaries with minimal interleaving parenchyma
Schwannoma clinical features, histo features, treatment
usually found at the cerebellopontine angle. Schwann cell origin, so S-100 positive (S-100 stains neural crest cells). biphasic pattern with verokay bodies. often localized to CN8. treated with stereotactic radiosurgery.
relatively rare, slow growing most often in fronal lobes. causes a chicken-wire capillary pattern. remember that oligos look like fried eggs- round nuclei w/ clear cytoplasm. often calcified
what are the childhood primary brain tumors?
pilocytic/low grade astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, ependymoma, craniopharyngioma
What is pilocytic astrocytoma? prognosis, location,
good prognosis. usually found in the cerebellum, though it may be supratentorial (other cerebellar tumor is a hemangioblastoma in adults or medulloblastoma in kids). well-circumscribed tumors
What are the histo findings of pilocytic tumors
GFAP positive (it is an astrocytoma), Rosenthal fibers (eosinophilic corkscrew fibers)
they are cystic and solid
What is a medulloblastoma? prognosis, what is it made of, associated problems
highly malignant cerebellar tumor made of primitive neuroectodermal cells. can combress the 4th ventricle and cause hydrocephalus, and can also send drop mets to the spinal cord
What are the histo findings of medulloblasoma?
homer wright rosettes and solid blue cells.
What is an ependymoma? location, prognosis, associated problems
ependymal cell tumors most commonly found in the 4th ventricle
cause hydrocephalus. have a poor prognosis
Histo findings of ependymoma
characteristic perivascular rosettes. rod-shaped blepharoplasts found near nucleus
What is a craniopharyngioma? location, prognosis, clinical features
benign childhood tumor that may be confused with a pitutiary adenoma b/c both can cause bitemporal hemianopia. most common childhood supratentorial tumor