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Hypothalamus: What are some areas that aren't protected by the BBB?

area postreama and the OVLT (organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, which senses changes in osmolarity).


What nucleus makes ADH?

supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus


What makes oxytocin?

the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus


What should I know about release of ADH and oxytocin?

Although both are made by the hypothalamus, ADH and oxytocin are stored and released by the posterior pituitary


Lateral area of the hypothalamus: what does it do and pathology? Important hormonal input?

lateral area mediates hunger. If it is destroyed, we see anorexia or failure to thrive.
It is inhibited by leptin (which is why leptin helps make mice skinny)
("if you zap your lateral nucleus, you shrink laterally")


What does the ventromedial area of the hypothalamus do?

satiety. If it is destroyed, as by a craniophayngioma, pt will have hyperphagia. the ventromedial area is STIMULATED by leptin


What does the anterior hypothalamus do?

cooling and pArasympathetics (A/C= anterior cooling)


What does the posterior hyothalamus do?

heating and sympathetics:


What does the suprachiasmotic nucleus do?

circadian rhythm control


How is melatonin release controlled?

the suprachiasmatic nucleus causes NE release. NE acts on the pineal gland to promote melatonin release.


What hormones are controlled via Circadian rhythms>

ACTH, prolactin, melatonin, norepinephrine


What controls extraocular eye movements during REM sleep?

PPRF (paramedian pontine reticular formation/conjugate gaze center)


What are some drugs that cause changes in REM sleep?

alcohol, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates are associated with decreased REM sleep and delta wave sleep
norepinephrine also decreases REM sleep


How can you treat bedwetting?

oral desmopressin acetate, which mimics ADH and keeps water in the body


What is a drug that can be used for night terrors and sweating?



What are the Stages of sleep? Significant events in early sleep?

awake with eyes open, awake with eyes closed, non-REM sleep stages 1,2, and 3, and then REM sleep.
bruxism (teeth grinding) occurs in stage 2 non-REM sleep
sleepwalking, night terrors, and bedwetting occur in stage 3 sleep.


What happens during REM sleep?

loss of motor tone, increased O2 us, and variable pulse and BP. dreaming and clitoral/penile tumescence occur. may serve a memory processing function.


What is the ECG waveform during each stage of sleep?

awake: beta (high freq, low amplitude)
awake, eyes closed: alpha
stage 1 NREM: theta
Stage 2: Sleep spindles and K complexes (K complex is like on medium spike)
stage 3: delta: low freq, highest amplitude
REM sleep: beta again (high freq, low amplitude)
BATS Drink Blood


What is the direct relationship of the hypothalamus to the pituitary?

posterior pituitary/ neurohypophysis receives hypothalamic axonal projections from the supraoptic (ADH) and paraventricular (oxytocin)nuclei.

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