Cardio Anatomy 1 and Cardio 2 Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardio Anatomy 1 and Cardio 2 Anatomy Deck (39):
1

Thorax, Mediastinum of the bony Thorax → Superiorly

The Thoracic inlet (T1 vertebrae, first ribs, manubrium sterni)

2

Thorax, Mediastinum of the bony Thorax → Laterally

The ribs and intercostals muscles

3

Thorax, Mediastinum of the bony Thorax → Anteriorly

The costal cartilages, manubrium and sternum

4

Thorax, Mediastinum of the bony Thorax → Posteriorly

The ribs and thoracic vertebrae

5

Thorax, Mediastinum of the bony Thorax → Inferiorly

Thoracic outlet (T12, the costal margin formed by the lower 6 ribs, and the xiphoid process

6

Mediastinum → Definition




Central compartment of thoracic cavity. Area bounded by the pleural cavities laterally, the thoracic inlet superiorly and by the diaphragm inferiorly.

7

Mediastinum → Divisions

Superior mediastinum → Top: superior thoracic aperture and inferior angle of Louis
Inferior Mediastinum → Thymus, heart, phrenic nerves, oesophagus and thoracic duct, descending aorta, sympathetic trunks

8

Mediastinum →Superior Contents

• Muscles
• Aortic arch
• Brachiocephailc artery
• Thoracic portions of left common carotid and left subclavian
• Brachiocephalic veins
• SVC
• Left highest intercostal vein
• Vagus
• Cardiac nerve
• Superficial and deep cardiac plexuses
• Phrenic nerve
• Left recurrent laryngeal nerve
• Trachea
• Oesophagus
• Thoracic duct
• Thymus
• Lymph glands
• Anterior longitudinal ligament

9

Mediastinum → Middle Contents

• Heart
• Ascending aorta
• Lower half of SVC with azygous vein
• Bifurcation of trachea and two bronchi
• Pulmonary artery

10

Mediastinum → Anterior Contents

• Loose areolar tissue
• Lymphatic vessels
• Anterior mediastinal lymph nodes
• Mediastinal branches of the internal thoracic artery
• Thymus

11

Mediastinum → Posterior Contents

• Thoracic descending aorta
• Azygous vein
• Hemiazygous vein
• Vagus nerve
• Splanchnic
Sympathetic chains
Oesophagus
Thoracic duct
Lymph glands

12

Plane of Louis →

Disc of T4-T5 to sternal angle

13

Fibrous Pericardium
Anchored to
Below

Anchored to

→ Central tendon of the diaphragm

14

Serous Pericardium

Parietal adherent to → Fibrous pericardium
Visceral adherent to → Part of epicardium

15

Space between two layers contains of pericardium

Serous Fluid

16

Reflections of pericardium

1. Transverse sinus of the heart between aorta and pulmonary veins.
2. Oblique sinus of the pericardium behind the left atrium

17

Function of Pericardium

• Fixes heart in mediastinum and limits its motion
• Protection from infections coming from other organs (such as lungs)
• Prevents excessive dilation of heart in cases of acute volume overload
• Lubrication

18

Nerve supply to fibrous pericardium

Phrenic Nerve

19

Nerve supply to Parietal serous

Phrenic Nerve

20

Nerve supply to visceral serous

Branches of Sympathetic trunks and vagus nerves

21

Pericarditis →

May be caused by infection, systemic disease or myocardial infarction.

22

referral of pericarditis

Pain from pericardium (e.g. pericarditis) may be referred to shoulder tip (C4).

23

Cardiac tamponade

Excess fluid in pericardial space (effusion) can compress heart = cardiac tamponade.

24

Right Coronary arteries and its main branches:

Posterior descending artery
Right marginal artery

25

Left Coronary arteries: main branches

Left anterior descending artery
Left circumflex artery

26

Main tributaries of coronary sinus

• Small, middle, great and oblique cardiac veins.
• left marginal vein
• Left posterior ventricular vein. It drains into the right atrium.

27

Coronary Heart disease →

1. Blockage of the coronary circulation can have multiple effects including damage to the myocardium, papillary muscle damage leading to valve incompetence.

28

2. Dysrhythmias →

affect the conducting system of the heart.

29

Right Ventricle: Walls




Thicker. Muscular projections called trabecular carneae.
Made of:
1. Papillary muscles
2. Moderator band
3. Prominent ridges

30

Right Ventricle: The Interventricular septum between the ventricles have two parts

Muscular ventricular septum
Membranous ventricular septum → upper and posterior

31

Right Ventricle: Septomarginal trabecular or moderator band function

Crosses the ventricular cavity from the septal to the anterior wall. Conveys the right branch of the atrioventricular bundle

32

Right Ventricle: Blood enters via (valve)

Tricuspid valve

33

ventricle Blood exits via :
1. Tract
2. Valve

Pulmonary artery
Pulmonary Valve

34

Identify the remnant of the umbilical artery in the pelvis

Superior vesicular arteries

35

Identify the remnant of the ductus arteriosus

Ligamentum arteriosum

36

Foramen ovale after birth

Fossa ovalis

37

What physical sign might be present if this structure remains open - foramen ovale

stroke?

38

Heart Valves


1. Valve disease may involve stenosis (narrowing) or incompetence (allowing regurgitation) of valves
2. Causes of valve disease include anomalies and infections (e.g. rheumatic fever)
3. Vales affected by → stenosis

39

Embryology

1. Septal defects occur due to anomalies in the embryological septation of the heart.
2. Septal defects may involve the interatrial or interventricular septa – or both
3. Atrial and ventricular septal defects both allow blood to flow form the higher pressure left side to the lower pressure right side – resulting in right ventricle hypertrophy and pulmonary hypertension

Decks in Cardio Class (108):