Histopathology Male Genital System 1 and 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Histopathology Male Genital System 1 and 2 Deck (87)
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1

Spermatoceole

Benign epithelial cyst of epididimus

2

Varicocoele

Dilated blood vessels (tortuous)

3

Hydrocoele

Accumulation of serous fluid in body cavity (ascites or testicular)

4

Cryptochidism → Definition

Permanent retention of testis outside the scrotum

5

Cryptochidism → Prevalence

Occurs in 1% of boys

6

Cryptochidism → Presentation

Must are idiopathic and unilateral
If bilateral, can results in sterility

7

Cryptochidism → Risks associated

30-4- x more risk of developing GCT
If a cryptorchid testis is surgically placed in the scrotum, it may still develop a germ cell neoplasm especially if operated after 6 years of age

8

Atrophy →Can be secondary to

• Cryptochidism
• Inflammation – mumps
• Oestrogens (Cirrhosis and hormonal therapy for PCa)
• Chemotherapy, particularly cyclophosphamide (cause cell death as rapidly dividing cells)
• Radiation exposure
• Testicular regression syndrome (possibly secondary to infarction in-utero)

9

Male Infertility → Causes can be grouped into three categories

• Pre testicular – extra-testicular endocrine disorder
• Testicular – all the causes of atrophy
• Post testicular – obstruction of the ducts – can be located by surgery

10

Mumps Orchitis → Epi

Mumps usually occurs in children involving parotid gland.
In adults, about 25% of the cases are complicated by orchitis

11

Mumps Orchitis → Definition

The testis is enlarged and very tender due to stretching of the tunica albugenia
In many cases, however the testis becomes atrophic and if bilateral can lead to infertility.

12

Mumps Orchitis → Types

Idiopathic Granulomatous Orchitis
Syphillic Orchitis

13

Mumps Orchitis → Idiopathic Granulomatous Orchitis

Uncommon causes of unilateral testicular enlargement in middle-aged men

14

Mumps Orchitis → Idiopathic Granulomatous Orchitis microscopically

Granulomas are centred on the tubules and into the interstitium

15

Mumps Orchitis → Idiopathic Granulomatous Orchitis possible aetiology

Includes reaction to estravasated sperms (Rupture of seminiferous tubules stimulates an immune response.

16

Mumps Orchitis → Syphillic Orchitis

Now rarely seen
Was common site of development of Gumma
M/s granulomatous inflammation with central necrosis

17

Mumps Orchitis → Features

1o Ulcer
2ndry Wafty lesions mucocutaneous junction
3 o Involves CVS – artic aneurysm/spial dorsal column → neurosyphilis

18

Testicular Tumours → Peak incidence

15-34 years
Most common tumour of male in this age group
Accounts for less than 1% of all cancer deaths in UK

19

Testicular Tumours → Can be classified into:

1. Germ cell tumour (90%)
2. Sex-cord stromal tumours (sertoli and leydig cells)
3. Mixed germ cell sex cord stromal tumours
4. Primary tumours not specific to the testis e.g. lymphoma
5. Metastatic tumours

20

Germ Cell Tumours → Description

Most testicular GCT are malignant

21

Germ Cell Tumours → Derived from

Germ cells, therefore able to differentiate towards any embryonic or extraembryonic tissue.

22

Germ Cell Tumours → Can present with

• Painless unilateral enlargement of testis
• Secondary hydrocele
• Symptoms from metasteses
• Retroperitoneal mass
• Gynaecomastia

23

Germ Cell Tumours → Risk Factors

• Cryptorchidism – higher the location greater the risk

24

Germ Cell Tumours → Genetic predisposition

• Sibs have 10-fold high risk
• Blacks in Africa have very low incidence

25

Germ Cell Tumours → Testicular dysgenesis

Testicular feminisation
Klinefelter syndrome

26

Germ Cell Tumours → Cytogenic changes

Involving chromosome 12 and 1 (isochromosome of short arm of chromosome 12 – in 90%)

27

Germ Cell Tumours → Classification

In situ
Invasive

28

Germ Cell Tumours → In situ

Intratubular Germ cell Neoplasia

29

Germ Cell Tumours → Invasive

Seminoma
Non seminomatous Germ cell Tumours
Mixed

30

Germ Cell Tumours → Non seminomatous germ cell tumours types

Embryonal Carcinoma
Yolk sac tumour
Choriocarcinoma
Teratoma

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