Histopath - Paediatric Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Histopath - Paediatric Pathology Deck (18):
1

Complications of preterm birth

1. Respiratory distress syndrome
2. Necrotising entercolitis
3. Intraventricular haemorrhage
4. Patent ductus arteriosus

2

Cause of Necrotising entercolitis

Unknown but not exlcusive to preterm 20% at full term.

3

Necrotising entercolitis

• Seen in premature infants where portions of the bowel undergo necrosis (tissue death).

4

Targeted regions

• Often affects/Jejunum (regional) therefore if caught early can remove portions.
• Other underlying disease in necrotic samples

5

Hirschsprung’s disease: definition

Congenital absence of ganglion cells.

6

Hirschsprung’s disease Presentation

2-day-old boy
Failure to pass meconium
Abdominal distension
Bilious vomits

7

Hirschsprung’s disease Epi

1:5000
M: F – 4:1
• 10% Familial
• 10% Downs syndrome
• 80% sporadic

8

Hirschsprung’s disease Normal Process

5th-12th weeks gestation: migration from oesophagus → anus

9

Hirschsprung’s disease Lead to

Aganglionic colon
Total colonic - 1%
Partial – 5-10%

10

Hirschsprung’s disease Complications

Entercolitis
Perforation = peritoneal infection

11

Hirschsprung’s disease Treatment

Surgical removal → malnutrition complications

12

Cystic Fibrosis epi

1:2000 live births
Most common lethal genetic disease

13

Cystic Fibrosis description

Thick tenacious secretions

14

CF Affected organ pathology

Bronchiectasis
Atresia → complete absence of a part of intestine
• Oesophageal (Instant vomiting)
• Small intestine (delayed manifestations) – incidence 1/1500: Easily curable
• Biliary (rare)
Risk of perforation

15

Biliary atresia epi

1:10,000 live births
Liver biopsy is the most reliable means of establishing the diagnosis
Surgery by 12 weeks

16

New born difficulty breathing differential

• Respiratory tract malformations congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation → chance of infection
• Respiratory tract malformations – Congenital diaphragmatic hernia

17

Kidney with recurrent UTI differentials

Mutlicystic dysplatic kidney → parts or all of 1 kidney
Autosomal recessive PKD (inherited)
• Both kidneys and therefore require dialysis

18

Wilms tumour:

kidney nephroblastoma (abdominal mass)
• Most common in adrenal glands (not brain)

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