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Flashcards in Cardio Symposium Secondary Hypertension Deck (24):
1

Conn’s Syndrome (primary hyperaldosteronism) Pathology

Excessive secretion of aldosterone of the adrenal gland

2

Conn’s Syndrome (primary hyperaldosteronism) Signs and Symptoms

Musclular weakness due to hypokalaemia, hypertension due to salt and water retention

3

Conn’s Syndrome (primary hyperaldosteronism) Tests

Function of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
→ CT scan to help localise the adenoma

4

Conn’s Syndrome (primary hyperaldosteronism) Treatment

Surgical removal
Spironoacetone (Potassium-sparing diuretic)

5

Renal artery stenosis Pathology

Stenosis of the renal artery may be caused by atherosclerotic plaques. It results in activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

6

Renal artery stenosis Signs and Symptoms

Symptoms and signs of atherosclerosis e.g. bruit over affected artery
ACE inhibitors may reduce renal perfusion and precipitate renal failure

7

Renal artery stenosis Tests

Angiography

8

Renal artery stenosis Treatment

Angioplasty and stenting or surgery

9

Pre-eclampsia Pathology

Placental ischaemia results in release of agents that cause endothelial dysfunction.

10

Pre-eclampsia Signs and Symptoms

Hypertension proteinuria +/- oedema occurring after week 20 of pregnancy

11

Pre-eclampsia Tests

Liver function, renal function, platelet count and uric acid

12

Pre-eclampsia Treatment

Antihypertensives, magnesium.
May required urgent delivery

13

Phaeochromocytoma Pathology

Catecholamine secreting tumour often located in the adrenal medulla

14

Phaeochromocytoma Signs and Symptoms

Paroxysmal (episodic) hypertension, pallor, palpitations, anxiety and abdominal pain

15

Phaeochromocytoma Tests

24hr collection of urine to screen or elevated levels of catecholamine metabolites CT scan to help locate tumour.

16

Phaeochromocytoma Treatment

Treatment with alpha- and beta adrenoceptor antagonists.
Surgical removal

17

Cushing’s Syndrome Pathology

Inappropriate elevation of free corticosteroids e.g. by and adrenal tumour

18

Cushing’s Syndrome Signs and Symptoms

Moon face, acne, hirsutism, buffalo hump, centra obesity and striaeMoon face, acne, hirsutism, buffalo hump, centra obesity and striae

19

Cushing’s Syndrome Tests

Cortisol levels, urinary cortisol and dexamethasone suppression test CT scanning to help locate tumour.

20

Cushing’s Syndrome Treatment

Surgical removal

21

Coarctation of the aorta Pathology

Narrowing of the aorta most commonly where the ductus arteriosus joins aorta

22

Coarctation of the aorta Signs and Symptoms

Raised blood pressure in upper limbs.
Systolic mumur heard posteriorly.
Weak femoral pulses and delayed in comparison to the radial pulses

23

Coarctation of the aorta Tests

Notching of under surface of ribs due to collaterals

24

Coarctation of the aorta Treatment

Surgical correction

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