Seminar O - Opthamology Section 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Seminar O - Opthamology Section 2 Deck (96)
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1

Lids

common conditions

Blepharitis
Chalazion
Malposition

2

Conjunctiva common conditions

Conjunctivitis

3

common conditions Sclera

Episcleritis
Scleritis

4

common conditions Cornea

Keratitis

5

common conditions Uveal Tract

Uveitis

6

common conditions Trabecular Meshwork

Acute Glaucoma

7

Periorbital Skin common conditions

Preseptal cellulitis
Orbital Cellulitis

8

Blepharitis: Definition:







A combination of:
• Infection of the lid margins by staphylococcal bacteria
• Overproduction of sebum by the glands at the lid margin

9

Blepharitis: History Presentation

• Chronic ocular irritation
• Watery eye
• Red eye

10

Blepharitis: Examination results

• Crusting and scaling of the lash line
• Careful examination can demonstrate plugs of sebum in the meibomian gland orifices.

11

Chalazion – a meibomian cyst (lipogranuloma) Definition

Meibomian gland dysfunction

12

Chalazion – a meibomian cyst (lipogranuloma) Occurs with

Increased frequency in patients with acne rosacea and seborrhoeic dermatitis

13

Chalazion – a meibomian cyst (lipogranuloma) Treatment

Hot Spoon bathing and antibiotics but often chalazia require surgical incision and curettage.

14

Malposition:
Definition:

Abnormal position of the lids is extremely common and can often be overlooked as a cause of red eye.

15

Entropion: Definition

Turning inwards of the lid margin
Can affect the upper or lower eyelid
Normal eyelashes cause corneal abrasions

16

Entropion: Causes of entropion include

• Ageing (involuntional)
• Conjunctival scarring (cicatricial)
o Trachoma
o Stevens-Johnson syndrome
o Ocular pemphigoid
• Acute spastic entropion - spasm of orbicularis muscle

17

Conjunctiva: Aetiology


• Bacterial
• Viral
• Chlamydial
• Allergic
• Neonatal
• Iatrogenic

18

Conjunctiva: Memorable way to remember causes

Ocular Cicatricial Pemphigoid
Herpes

Gonococcal infection
Ligneous
Adenoviral infection
Diptheria infection

Stevens-johnson syndrome
Candida or chlamidya infection (newborn only)
Alkali burn
Beta-haemolytic streptococcal infection
Springtime (allergic conjunctivitis)

19

Bacterial Conjunctivitis: Main symptoms


• Red eye
• Eyelids stuck together
• Minimal pain
• Purulent discharge

20

Bacterial Conjunctivitis: On examination

• Red eye
• Purulent discharge
• Conjunctival papillae

21

Bacterial Conjunctivitis: Cause

• Staphylococcal aureus
• staphylococcal epidermidis
• streptococcus pneumoniae.

22

Bacterial Conjunctivitis: Management

via broad spectrum topical antibiotics such as chloramphenicol or fucithalmic acid.

23

Viral Conjunctivitis: Symptoms



• Red eye
• Watery discharge
• Usually bilateral
• Often preceding coryzal symptoms

24

Viral Conjunctivitis: On examination

• Red eye
• Watery discharge
• Conjunctival follicles
• Preauricular lymph nodes
• Keratitis (see later)

25

Viral Conjunctivitis: Usual Organisms

o Adenovirus (different serotypes)
o Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1)

26

Viral Conjunctivitis:Treatment

Conservative – spontaneously resolves in approx. 2 weeks
• Lubricants - can be used for comfort
• Antibiotics (chloramphenicol) - to prevent secondary bacterial infection
• Topical Aciclovir (Zovirax) drops - if HSV-1 has been isolated
• Topical steroid drops - should only be used under ophthalmological supervision, and only if the inflammation is very severe.

27

Viral Conjunctivitis: Contagious

Viral conjunctivitis is extremely contagious and patients should avoid touching their eyes, shaking hands with other people as well as sharing hand towels.

28

Chlamydial Conjunctivitis → Chlamydia Trachomatis is

An obligate intracellular bacterium with multiple serotypes.

29

Chlamydial Conjunctivitis →Serotypes:

Serotypes A-C cause Trachoma (a chronic conjunctivitis, endemic to Africa and Asia)
Serotypes D-K cause Adult inclusion conjunctivitis

30

Chlamydial Conjunctivitis →Adult inclusion conjunctivitis

• Young adults
• Possible concomitant urethral or vaginal symptoms
• Transmission is via autoinoculation from genital secretions, although eye-eye spread may occur

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