Seminar A arthritis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Seminar A arthritis Deck (26):
1

Types of arthritis and rheumatism

Soft tissue rheumatism →
Localised rheumatoid

Fibromyalgia
Polymayalgia rheuamatica
Bone disease
Osteoporosis
Metabolic
Other arthritis
Other diseases
No disease
Osteoarthritis
Inflammatory polyarthritis
Rheumatoid Arthritis
SLE
Spondyloarthropathies
Other CTD
Crystal arthropathy
Gout
Pseudogout
Spinal pain

2

Soft tissue rheumatism →

Pain and stiffness from structures outside joints

3

Localised rheumatoid

Pain and stiffness from specific structures such as the ileo-lumbar ligament

4

Fibromyalgia

A term loosely used to describe patients with a syndrome of pain and tenderness in multiple sites. There is a strict definition but it is rarely used

5

Polymayalgia rheuamatica

A specific disease causing early morning proximal muscle stiffness but not arthritis. It occurs in people over 60, and sometimes in associsation with temporal (or giant cell) arteritis (when younger people might be affected)

6

Osteoporosis

Reduction in all bone tissues

7

Metabolic

For example, osteomalacia, when bone calcification but not bone protein is reduced.

8

Other arthritis

There are over 200 recognised types of arthritis and rheumatism

9

Other diseases

Many other diseases cause aches and pain in muscles and joints. Hypothyroidism and diabetes are good examples

10

No disease

Everyday aches and pains can be interpreted as indicating a serious illness in those with worries or concerns

11

Osteoarthritis

Patchy cartilage death and local bony overgrowth

12

Inflammatory polyarthritis

Inflammation inside many joints

13

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Synovial hyperplasia and inflammation

14

SLE

Deposition of immune complexes in many organ systems leading to local inflammation

15

Spondyloarthropathies

Inflammation of entheses with subsequent new bone formation principally in the spine, as in ankylosing spondylitis

16

Other CTD

Such as scleroderma or Raynaud’s disease

17

Crystal arthropathy

Inflammation caused by the precipitation of crystals within joints

18

Gout

Sodium urate crystals causing inflammation in joints

19

Pseudogout

Calcium pyrophosphate crystals causing inflammation in joints

20

Spinal pain

Not including inflammatory pain from spondyloarthropathies

21

Cartilage death (OA)

1. Joint space narrowing
2. Subchondral sclerosis
3. Osteophytes
4. Thickening capsule becomes thickened and fibrotic
5. Additional synovial fluid produced
6. Women >50

22

Synovial inflammation and overgrowth (RA)

Synovitis
Joint space narrowing
Erosions
1. Persistent inflammation causes generalised cartilage loss (resulting in joint space narrowing) and also thinning (osteoporosis) of the bone close to the joint (juxta-articular osteoporosis)
2. Synovial cells themselves become overgrown and invasive, and eat into the corners of the ones, forming ‘erosion’.
3. Women (30-50 yrs)

23

Inflammation and new bone formation at enthuse (places where ligaments and tendons join on to bone) (Ankylosing spondylitis)

• Main site is the spine (enthuses bound).
• New bone forms little spurs (called syndesmophytes in the spine) – grow out into area of ligaments.
• Loss of range of motion
• Synovitis
• More common in men (15-30)

24

Crystals in synovial fluid (gout)

First joint involved (50% of pop)→ Proxiaml interphalanageal joint of big toe (podagra)
Does not happen in women or children before menopause
Men>40yrs

25

Joint infection associated symptoms

Inflammations
Systems symptoms – nights sweats or pyrexia
Raised white blood cell count

26

UK joint infections commons cause

Staphylococci
Streptococci

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