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Flashcards in Cellular basis of behavioural illness Deck (22):
1

What is catatonia?

Motor immobility as evidenced by catalepsy or stupor

Excessive motor activity (purposeless, not influenced by external stimuli)

Extreme negativism (motiveless resistance to all instructions or maintenance of a rigid posture against attempts to be moved ) or mutism

2

Although neuropathology has chnaged significantly over centuries today, what still reminas constant for many diseases?

Clinical diagnoses only

No pathological test

3

When do most neurodevelopmental and mental disorders arise?

Why?

In late teens to early adulthood

Due to the way the brain is developing at this time 

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4

Describe the sequence of maturation of the cortex?

Maturation begins in the occipital lobe

Last part of cortex to mature is frontal lobe 

5

Which brain cells are thought to be responsible for neuropathology?

Probably a mix of neuronal and glial pathology

6

How much of the adult's resting metabolic rate is allocated to the brain?

25% 

7

How are synapses implicated in development?

Change dynamically during development

Synaptogenesis and synpatic pruning 

8

How are synapses implicated in neuropathology such as schizophrenia or other disorders in childohhod and adolescence?

Problem with synaptogenesis or synpatic pruning 

9

Describe the differences in connectivity that may occur in neuropathology such as schizophrenia?

Decreased neuronal size

Decreased neuronal connections: between dendrites and synapses, between thalamus and cortex, and decreased molecular markers of synpases

 

10

What are the three categories of brain changes?

Neurochemical

Anatomical

Trophic/signalling/developmental

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11

Describe the three risk factor categories for developing schizophrenia?

Genetic/epigenetic

Perinatal - hypoxia

Prenatal - pyrexia, starvation

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12

Which neurochemical chnages may occur to produce neuropathology such as schizophrenia?

Imbalances in dopamine, GABA or glutamate

?ubiquitination 

13

Describe the anatomical abnormalities that may occur to produce neuropathology such as schizophrenia?

Decrease in synpases or dendrites

Decerased GABAergic interneurons (inhibitory)

?glial and microglial changes

14

Which signalling pathways have been implicated in the development of neuropathology such as schizophrenia?

NRG1

AKT1

Wnt/GSK3b

15

In which parts of the Wnt signalling pathway are abnromalities present on schizophrenia?

Can be a number of places 

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16

How do astrocytes interact with neurons?

Describe how they affect the function of neurons?

Astrocytic prrocess are in contact with synapses

One astrocyte domain encompasses 270,000-2 million synpases

Regulate the activity at synapses 

17

Describe the glial cell changes that are thought to occur in psychiatric disorders?

Decreased glial density, espeically in deeper layers of cortex

Also decreased neuronal size (less active due to loss of glia)

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18

How might microglia play a role in the neuropathology of disorders such as schizophrenia?

Markers of microgila significantly upregulated in schizophrenia

Suggest that inflammatory processes are occurring 

19

Which cell types are thought to be responsible for the OCD-like behaviour seen in autism?

Explain.

Lack of microglia

Hoxb8 knockout mice express behaviour similar to OCD 

(Hoxb8 only expressed by microglia)

Mice were rescued by bone marrow transplant from WT mice 

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20

How is brain growth thought to be altered in autism?

Early overgrowth of DLPFC

Both grey and white matter affected

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21

Describe the proposed genetic basis behind autism?

SNPs

Distributed autistic and non-autistic individuals based on genetic classifications, and were able to classify with an accuracy of 85% using various SNPs

Thought to involve some protective and some risk factor SNPs

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