Imaging of CNS Flashcards Preview

Neuroscience > Imaging of CNS > Flashcards

Flashcards in Imaging of CNS Deck (23):
1

Describe the utility of plain film/X-ray for imaging the brain?

Not very useful, as brain is water density and doesnt show up on X-ray

Can be utilised for skull fractures

2

Describe the process and utility of pneumoencephalography for imaging the brain?

Take out CSF > replace with air > rotate patient

Outlines ventricles > can see brain due to relative difference in density 

No longer used 

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3

How is catheter angiography used to image the brain?

Catheter access through groin > navigate into head and neck vessels > inject contrast medium 

Digitally subtract images to get outline of brain vessels 

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4

Describe the utility of ultrasound for imaging the brain?

Bone blocks US waves - otherwise would be perfect

Mainly used in neonates, as fontanels act as an acoustic window

Can use Doppler US in adults to measure flow in cerebral arteries 

5

Describe the difference between T1 and T2 weighted MRI?

T1 -  fat and fluid black

T2 - fat and fluid white 

 

6

Which types of information can MRI provide about the brain?

Anatomical and functional 

7

What is the most common use of fMRI?

Detect which side language is on before surgery/tumour resection

8

Why can PET and SPECT be used to measure?

Metabolic activity of the brain

Can be used to see hypermeatbolic degenerative conditions or seizures during epilepsy

9

Why can't PET and SPECT be used for functional imaging?

Poor temporal resolution

10

Why is a relatively noisy image of the brain produced in CT?

Grey and white matter have similar density

Need narrow window to distinguish them 

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11

Which imaging modality best distinguishes grey and white matter in the cortex?

MRI, in particular T1 weighted 

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12

What are T1 weighted MRI images utilised for?

Anatomical distinctions between cortex and adjacent white matter

13

What are T2 weighted MRI images utlised for?

Outlining areas of abnormal physiology

Identify areas with abnormal content 

14

What is the most common cause of TLE?

Hippocampal sclerosis

Challenging to image 

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15

Which cranial nerves can be seen on MRI?

All of them 

16

Why is CN V often imaged?

Trigeminal neuralgia

17

Which imaging modalities can be used to image intracranial arteries?

Digital subtraction angiography

CT angiography

MR angiography

Transcranial US 

18

Is the vasculature opf the brain constant across individuals?

Large vessels are very constant on location

A lot of variations in smaller vessels and Circle of Willis anatomy 

19

How does thromboembolic stroke appear on imaging?

Hyperdense 

20

How does arterial dissection appear in imaging?

Rat tail appearance

21

What are watershed strokes?

Strokes that occure between vascular territories, typically due to hypoperfusion 

22

How can intracranial veins and dural sinuses be imaged?

Digital subtraction angiography

CT venography

MR venography

23

Are the cerebral veins constant in their location across individuals?

Same as arteries; large veins are constant, but there is a lot of variation across smaller veins