Nasal cavity and nasopharynx Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nasal cavity and nasopharynx Deck (28):

Describe the skeleton of the external nose?

Septal cartilage

Lateral cartilages

Alar cartilages

Nasal bones

Frontal process of maxilla

Frontal bone

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Describe the skeleton of the nasal cavity?

LATERAL WALL: frontal bone, ethmoidal bone, maxilla, palatine bone, sphenoidal bone

MEDIAL WALL: septal cartilage, cribiform plate of ethmoid, vomer


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What are the openings of the nasal cavity?

Anterior nare

Posterior nare


Why is damage to the ethmoid bone particularly dangerous?

It is in close contact with the brain and meninges

Breaks may lead to infection, bleeds and rhinorrhea


What is the vestibule?

Small entrance to the nasal cavity

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What is the vestibule lined by?

Skin and hair


What is the nasal cavity lined by?

Highly vascular mucous membrane (lines all except vestibule, which is lined by skin and hair)

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What is the function of the highly vascular mucous membrane?

Helps warm and humidify air

Mucous traps foreign particles


What are the two parts of the highly vascular mucous membrane on the medial wall of the nasal cavity?

Olfactory area (superior 1/3): olfactory epithelium

Respiratory area (inferior 2/3): respiratory epithelium

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Which cranial nerve relates to the nasal cavity?

Olfactory nerve (CN I)

Enters via cribiform plate of ethmoid bone

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Describe the features of the lateral wall of the nasal cavity?

Turbinate bones: conchae

Superior concha

Middle concha

Inferior concha


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What are the conchae lined by?

Highly vascular mucous membrane


What is the function of the conchae? 

Produce turbulence in air that we breathe in


Describe the spaces that relate to the turbinate bones?

Superior meatus

Middle meatus

Inferior meatus

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Describe the paranasal sinuses?

Frontal sinus

Ethmoid sinus

Sphenoid sinus

Maxillary sinus

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Describe the drainage of the paranasal sinuses?

Frontal, ethmoid and sphenoid drain downwards into nasal cavity

Maxillary opening is high up in sinus


Describe the innervation of the paranasal sinuses?

Why is this important?

Frontal, ethmoid and sphenoid: V1

Maxillary: V2

Important in referred pain


How does the eye communicate with the nasal cavity?

Nasolacrimal duct 

Travels from eye and opens in inferior meatus

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Describe the blood supply of the nasal cavity?

Same for lateral and medial walls

Derived from carotid arteries

Superior quadrant: anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries

Anterior quadrant lateral: Lateral nasal branches of facial artery

Anterior quadrant medial: superior labial arteries

Inferior quadrant: greater palatine artery

Posterior quadrant: sphenopalatine artery

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What is epistaxis?

Nose bleeds


Which artery is responsible for forceful nose bleeds?


Sphenopalatine artery

Big, thick artery


Decsribe the innervation of the nasal cavity?

Superior: branches of anterior ethmoidal nerves (V1)

Inferior: branches of greater and esser palatine nerves (V2)

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Desribe the borders of the pharynx?

Base of skull to C6/lower border of cricoid cartilage 

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Describe the constrictor muscles of the pharynx?

Superior, middle and inferior constrictor muscles 

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What is the median raphe?

Conective tissue line where constrictor muscles meet in midline 

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What is the function of the constrictor muscles?

Contract sequentially when swallowing


Describe the features of the nasopharynx?

Opening of auditroy tube

Tubal elevation

Pharyngeal tonsil/adenoids

Salpingopharyngeal fold


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What is the function of the salpingopharyngeus muscle?

Contracts to open auditory tube

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