Introduction to cognition and emotion Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Introduction to cognition and emotion Deck (45):
1

Describe the top-down influence of sensation, perception and cognition?

Thought and prior knowledge (higher level cognition) and influence the way you perceive information

2

Describe the broad framework of sensation, perception and cognition?

Sensation > perception > higher level cognition

3

How is cognition defined in the field of cognitive science and neuropsychology?

Broad term of information processing and application of knowledge

4

How is cognition defined in the field of social psychology and clinical psychology?

Thoughts and internal dialogue

5

Why is the study of cognition important for practice?

Can inform diagnoses
Can help us to determine how best to work with patients, based on their abilities

6

Cognition stemmed from the idea of what?

Localisation of function

7

What does localisation of function describe?

Structure-function relationship in the brain is one to one

8

What does localisation of function suggest happens when brain damage occurs?

That cognition breaks down in specific ways

9

Which types of studies have been based on the idea of localisation of function?

Lesion studies in animals
Case studies in humans
Neuroimaging

10

What are the major functions of the frontal lobe?

Planning
Execution and regulation of behaviour

11

What are the major functions of the temporal lobe?

Audition
Language
Music
Memory
Emotion

12

What are the major functions of the parietal lobe?

Somatic representations
Visuospatial representations

13

What is the major function of the occipital lobe?

Vision

14

What is the left hemisphere specialised for?

Language

15

What is the right hemisphere specialised for?

Visuospatial processing

16

What is it important to remember when considering localisation and lateralisation of function?

It is rare for 'absolute' specialisation to occur, and that individual differences exist

17

What does Luria's brain-behaviour theory describe?

Organisation of function in the brain

18

Briefly describe Luria's brain-behaviour theory?

There are three basic units of the CNS, each specialised for different funtions

19

What are the three basic units of the CNS described by Luria?

Brainstem and associated areas
Posterior cortical regions
Frontal and prefrontal lobes

20

Which functions did Luria associate with each of the three units of the CNS?

Brainstem and associated areas: regulation of arousal and muscle tone
Posterior cortical regions: reception, integration, and analysis of sensory information
Frontal and prefrontal lobes: planning, executing and verifying behaviour

21

Describe Luria's cortical zones?

Three divisions (primary, secondary and tertiary zones) in the anterior and posterior cortical regions

22

What is the problem with Luria's brain-behaviour theory?

Some cognitive domains do not have one-to-one structural relationships;m need to think of systems or networks for each cognitive domain

23

Describe Luria's principles of functional systems, or 'pluripotentiality'?

1. Each area of the brain operates in conjunction with other areas
2. No area is singly responsible for voluntary human behaviour
3. Each area may play a specific role in many behaviours

24

Describe Darwin's early ideas about emotions?

Basic emotions have adaptive significance
Humans share emotional states with animals

25

Define emotion?

SEVERAL DEFINITIONS:

Inferred behavioural state
- conscious, subjective, internal feeling

Psychophysiological state
- incorporates conscious feelings
- physiological arousal
- cognitive component

26

What are the core emotions?

Anger
Fear
Sadness
Disgust
Happiness
(Surprise)

27

What are the important characteristics of core emotions?

Culturally universal
Innate
Involve 'old brain' structures

28

How do complex emotions arise?

Different combinations of core emotions

29

Which emotions are most frequently used in research and why?

Fear and sadness
They are easy to elicit and study
They correlate with anxiety and depression

30

Which neural systems are involved with emotion?

Limbic system

31

What is the limbic system composed of?

Hippocampus
Cingulate gyrus
Hypothalamus
Amygdala
Septal area
Nucleus accumbens
Orbitofrontal cortex

32

When does Kluver-Bucy syndrome arise?

Damage to anterior temporal lobe, in particular the amygdala

33

Describe the presentation of Kluver-Bucy syndrome?

Tameness
Loss of fear

34

What does Kluver-Bucy syndrome indicate about the function of the amygdala?

Involved in implicit emotional learning

35

What is the function of the orbitofrontal cortex?

Identification and expression of emotion

36

What do lesions to the orbitofrontal cortex result in?

Reduced facial expression and affect

37

Describe the laterality effect of orbitofrontal cortex lesions?

Right lesions worse than left lesions

38

Describe the findings about OFC in patients with affect disorders?

Reduced OFC volume

39

Describe the link between the hippocampus and affective disorders?

Volume reduction in depression

40

Describe the James Lange Theory of cognition and emotion?

We experience emotion in response to physiological changes

41

Describe the Cannon Bard Theory of emotion?

We can experience emotion without expressing it physically
Physiologic changes are not unique to specific emotions

42

What is the core of the primacy debate?

Is cognition essential to experiencing an affective response?
ie. does emotion precede cognition or vice-versa?

43

Describe Lazarus' idea of cognitive appraisal and emotions?

'What you bring to a situation will impact the outcome'
Cognitive processing is integral to emotional states, and cognitive appraisal directly impacts the physiological stress response
Cognitive appraisal can influence the type of emotional response

44

Describe the idea behind psychological interventions for mental health disorders?

Cognitive appraisal: change they way you think > change the way you feel
Reduce physiological response and tackle cognitive underpinnings

45

What is cognitive appraisal?

Personal interpretation of a situation