Flashcards in Introduction to cognition and emotion Deck (45):
Describe the top-down influence of sensation, perception and cognition?
Thought and prior knowledge (higher level cognition) and influence the way you perceive information
Describe the broad framework of sensation, perception and cognition?
Sensation > perception > higher level cognition
How is cognition defined in the field of cognitive science and neuropsychology?
Broad term of information processing and application of knowledge
How is cognition defined in the field of social psychology and clinical psychology?
Thoughts and internal dialogue
Why is the study of cognition important for practice?
Can inform diagnoses
Can help us to determine how best to work with patients, based on their abilities
Cognition stemmed from the idea of what?
Localisation of function
What does localisation of function describe?
Structure-function relationship in the brain is one to one
What does localisation of function suggest happens when brain damage occurs?
That cognition breaks down in specific ways
Which types of studies have been based on the idea of localisation of function?
Lesion studies in animals
Case studies in humans
What are the major functions of the frontal lobe?
Execution and regulation of behaviour
What are the major functions of the temporal lobe?
What are the major functions of the parietal lobe?
What is the major function of the occipital lobe?
What is the left hemisphere specialised for?
What is the right hemisphere specialised for?
What is it important to remember when considering localisation and lateralisation of function?
It is rare for 'absolute' specialisation to occur, and that individual differences exist
What does Luria's brain-behaviour theory describe?
Organisation of function in the brain
Briefly describe Luria's brain-behaviour theory?
There are three basic units of the CNS, each specialised for different funtions
What are the three basic units of the CNS described by Luria?
Brainstem and associated areas
Posterior cortical regions
Frontal and prefrontal lobes
Which functions did Luria associate with each of the three units of the CNS?
Brainstem and associated areas: regulation of arousal and muscle tone
Posterior cortical regions: reception, integration, and analysis of sensory information
Frontal and prefrontal lobes: planning, executing and verifying behaviour
Describe Luria's cortical zones?
Three divisions (primary, secondary and tertiary zones) in the anterior and posterior cortical regions
What is the problem with Luria's brain-behaviour theory?
Some cognitive domains do not have one-to-one structural relationships;m need to think of systems or networks for each cognitive domain
Describe Luria's principles of functional systems, or 'pluripotentiality'?
1. Each area of the brain operates in conjunction with other areas
2. No area is singly responsible for voluntary human behaviour
3. Each area may play a specific role in many behaviours
Describe Darwin's early ideas about emotions?
Basic emotions have adaptive significance
Humans share emotional states with animals
Inferred behavioural state
- conscious, subjective, internal feeling
- incorporates conscious feelings
- physiological arousal
- cognitive component
What are the core emotions?
What are the important characteristics of core emotions?
Involve 'old brain' structures
How do complex emotions arise?
Different combinations of core emotions
Which emotions are most frequently used in research and why?
Fear and sadness
They are easy to elicit and study
They correlate with anxiety and depression
Which neural systems are involved with emotion?
What is the limbic system composed of?
When does Kluver-Bucy syndrome arise?
Damage to anterior temporal lobe, in particular the amygdala
Describe the presentation of Kluver-Bucy syndrome?
Loss of fear
What does Kluver-Bucy syndrome indicate about the function of the amygdala?
Involved in implicit emotional learning
What is the function of the orbitofrontal cortex?
Identification and expression of emotion
What do lesions to the orbitofrontal cortex result in?
Reduced facial expression and affect
Describe the laterality effect of orbitofrontal cortex lesions?
Right lesions worse than left lesions
Describe the findings about OFC in patients with affect disorders?
Reduced OFC volume
Describe the link between the hippocampus and affective disorders?
Volume reduction in depression
Describe the James Lange Theory of cognition and emotion?
We experience emotion in response to physiological changes
Describe the Cannon Bard Theory of emotion?
We can experience emotion without expressing it physically
Physiologic changes are not unique to specific emotions
What is the core of the primacy debate?
Is cognition essential to experiencing an affective response?
ie. does emotion precede cognition or vice-versa?
Describe Lazarus' idea of cognitive appraisal and emotions?
'What you bring to a situation will impact the outcome'
Cognitive processing is integral to emotional states, and cognitive appraisal directly impacts the physiological stress response
Cognitive appraisal can influence the type of emotional response
Describe the idea behind psychological interventions for mental health disorders?
Cognitive appraisal: change they way you think > change the way you feel
Reduce physiological response and tackle cognitive underpinnings