Describe the upper and lower borders of the larynx?
Epiglottis to C6/inferior border of cricoid cartilage
Describe the bones of the laryngeal skeleton?
Hyoid bone: deficient posteriorly
Thyroid cartilage: deficient posteriorly
Cricoid cartilage: closed posteriorly
Describe the membranes of the larynx?
Thyrohyoid membrane: hyoid bone to thyroid cartilage
Cricothyroid membrane: thyroid cartilage to cricoid cartilage
Which muscle of the oral cavity attaches to the hyoid bone?
What bone of the larynx forms the Adam's apple?
Within which bone of the laryn are the vocal cords found?
Which bone of the larynx do the arytenoid cartilages articulate with?
Describe the arytenoid cartilages?
Pair of cartilages
Articulate with the cricoid cartilage inferiorly
Muscular process: attachment of intrinsic muscles of larynx
Vocal process: attachment of vocal ligaments
Can swivel to alter shape of vocal ligaments
Describe the movements of the arytenoid cartilages?
How is this movement achieved?
Can swivel and slide together
Achieved by contraction of intrinsic muscles of larynx
Where does the epiglottic cartilage arise from?
Posterior aspect of angle of thyroid cartilage
Describe the position of the vocal ligaments in phonation and breathing?
Adducted for phonation
Abducted for breathing
How are the vocal ligaments moved?
Intrinsic muscles of larynx contract/relax to alter position of arytenoid cartilages > alters position of vocal ligaments
Describe the difference between the vestibular and vocal folds?
Vestibular: superior, false vocal cord
Vocal fold: inferior, true vocal cord
Which are the only intrinsic muscles of the larynx involved in abducting the vocal ligaments?
Describe the action of the lateral cricoarytenoid muscles?
Pull musuclar processes away from each other > adduct vocal ligaments
Describe the action of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle?
Pulls muscular processes closer together > abducts vocal ligaments
List the intrinsic muscles of the larynx, and describe their actions?
Posterior cricoarytenoid: abducts vocal fold
Trasnverse and oblique arytenoids: closes rima glottis
Lateral cricoarytenoids: adducts vocal folds
Vocalis and thryroarytenoid: relaxes vocal fold
Cricothyroid: lengthens vocal fold
Describe the innervation of the larynx?
Braches of vagus
Superior laryngeal from above > internal and external laryngeal
Inferior laryngeal from below > recurrent laryngeal
Internal laryngeal: sensory to mucosa
External laryngeal: cricothyroid
Inferior laryngeal: intrinsic muscles excpet cricothyroid
Describe the appearance of the vocal folds when the recurrent laryngeal nerve is damaged?
Vocal ligaments fall into halfway position on affected side when damaged
Describe the blood supply of the larynx?
Superior thyroid vessels from above
Inferior thyroid vessels from below
Describe the best position for creating an emergency airway? Why?
Cricothyroid membrane puncture, midline, slightly downward angle
Better than a tracheotomy, as there are not any major vessels here to be damaged (inferior thyroid vein sits over trachea)
How can a patient's position be manipulated in order to achieve intubation?
Hyperextend patient's head slightly
Lines up pathway for tube better
Describe the structures of the laryngopharynx?
During swallowing, how is the laryngeal inlet sealed off?
Epiglottis folds down (not a perfect seal)
Whole larynx moves upwards as well
Describe the sensory nerve supply of the pharynx?
Trigeminal (pharyngeal branches): nasopharynx
Glossopharyngeal (pharyngeal branches): oropharynx
Vagus (internal laryngeal): laryngopharynx
Describe the motor nerve supply of the pharynx?
Mostly from vagus (pharyngeal branches)
Except stylopharyngeus: glossopharyngeal
Describe the process of deglutition?