Larynx and laryngopharynx Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Larynx and laryngopharynx Deck (27)
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Describe the upper and lower borders of the larynx?

Epiglottis to C6/inferior border of cricoid cartilage 


Describe the bones of the laryngeal skeleton?

Hyoid bone: deficient posteriorly

Thyroid cartilage: deficient posteriorly

Cricoid cartilage: closed posteriorly 


Describe the membranes of the larynx?

Thyrohyoid membrane: hyoid bone to thyroid cartilage

Cricothyroid membrane: thyroid cartilage to cricoid cartilage 


Which muscle of the oral cavity attaches to the hyoid bone?

Mylohyoid muscle 


What bone of the larynx forms the Adam's apple?

Thyroid cartilage


Within which bone of the laryn are the vocal cords found?

Thyroid cartilage 


Which bone of the larynx do the arytenoid cartilages articulate with?

Cricoid cartilage


Describe the arytenoid cartilages?

Pair of cartilages

Articulate with the cricoid cartilage inferiorly 

Muscular process: attachment of intrinsic muscles of larynx

Vocal process: attachment of vocal ligaments 

Can swivel to alter shape of vocal ligaments 


Describe the movements of the arytenoid cartilages?

How is this movement achieved?

Can swivel and slide together

Achieved by contraction of intrinsic muscles of larynx



Where does the epiglottic cartilage arise from?

Posterior aspect of angle of thyroid cartilage 


Describe the position of the vocal ligaments in phonation and breathing?

Adducted for phonation

Abducted for breathing 


How are the vocal ligaments moved?

Intrinsic muscles of larynx contract/relax to alter position of arytenoid cartilages > alters position of vocal ligaments


Describe the difference between the vestibular and vocal folds?

Vestibular: superior, false vocal cord

Vocal fold: inferior, true vocal cord


Which are the only intrinsic muscles of the larynx involved in abducting the vocal ligaments?

Posterior cricoarytenoids


Describe the action of the lateral cricoarytenoid muscles?

Pull musuclar processes away from each other > adduct vocal ligaments


Describe the action of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle?

Pulls muscular processes closer together > abducts vocal ligaments 


List the intrinsic muscles of the larynx, and describe their actions?

Posterior cricoarytenoid: abducts vocal fold

Trasnverse and oblique arytenoids: closes rima glottis

Lateral cricoarytenoids: adducts vocal folds

Vocalis and thryroarytenoid: relaxes vocal fold 

Cricothyroid: lengthens vocal fold 



Describe the innervation of the larynx?

Braches of vagus 

Superior laryngeal from above > internal and external laryngeal

Inferior laryngeal from below > recurrent laryngeal


Internal laryngeal: sensory to mucosa

External laryngeal: cricothyroid

Inferior laryngeal: intrinsic muscles excpet cricothyroid


Describe the appearance of the vocal folds when the recurrent laryngeal nerve is damaged?

Vocal ligaments fall into halfway position on affected side when damaged 


Describe the blood supply of the larynx?

Superior thyroid vessels from above

Inferior thyroid vessels from below


Describe the best position for creating an emergency airway? Why?

Cricothyroid membrane puncture, midline, slightly downward angle

Better than a tracheotomy, as there are not any major vessels here to be damaged (inferior thyroid vein sits over trachea)


How can a patient's position be manipulated in order to achieve intubation?

Hyperextend patient's head slightly

Lines up pathway for tube better 


Describe the structures of the laryngopharynx?

Aryepiglottic fold

Piriform recess


laryngeal inlet


During swallowing, how is the laryngeal inlet sealed off?

Epiglottis folds down (not a perfect seal)

Whole larynx moves upwards as well


Describe the sensory nerve supply of the pharynx?

Trigeminal (pharyngeal branches): nasopharynx

Glossopharyngeal (pharyngeal branches): oropharynx

Vagus (internal laryngeal): laryngopharynx


Describe the motor nerve supply of the pharynx?

Mostly from vagus (pharyngeal branches)

Except stylopharyngeus: glossopharyngeal 


Describe the process of deglutition?