Memory disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Memory disorders Deck (34):
1

Describe the relationship between subjective memory complaints and objective assessment?

Subject complaint does not necessarily predict memory performace, but may pre-date formal deficits in some cases of dementia

2

Define memory?

The processes used to acquire, store, retain and later retrieve information 

3

What did the case of HM help us to understand about memory?

The role of the medial temporal lobe in memory

4

Describe the difference between short-term and long-term memory?

Short-term memory: immediate memory, ability to keep inofrmation online, working memory

 

Long-term memory: storing information over minutes, hours, years for later retrieval

5

Describe how memory can be broken down into different types?

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6

Describe procedural memory?

Long term, implicit memory 

Skill acquisition 

 

7

Which types of memory typically do or do not break down in disease states?

Non-declarative (procedural) memory typically stays intact

Declarative memory typically breaks down 

8

Describe episodic memory?

Autobiographical

Events in a personal context, including place, time and emotional tone

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9

Describe semantic memory?

General facts that are not specific to the individual and are not contextual

10

Describe the main system in the brain that is important for memory?

Hippocampal system

Hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, perirhinal cortex

 

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11

How are the different parts of the hippocampus important in different diseases?

Different areas of hippocampus can break down differentially in different diseases

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12

Describe how memory differs in the left vs right hippocampus?

Differs depending on dominance

 

LEFT: verbal memory

RIGHT: non-verbal memory

13

Describe some general causes of memory impairment?

Degenerative disorders

Cerebrovascular disorders

Paroxysmal/transient disorders

Surgical resection 

14

Briefyl describe the neuropathology of temporal lobe epilsepsy?

Hippocampal sclerosis: cell loss, gliosis (scarring), hardening

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15

What type of memory disturbance do TLE patients generally present with?

Declarative memory disturbance 

16

List some of the other midline structures (besides hippocampus) that are important in memory?

Anterior thalamus

Basal forebrain

Mesial temporal region

Mamillary bodies

Retrosplenial cortex

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17

What is TGA?

Transient global amnesia

Striking anterograde amnesia

Global

18

Describe the pathology of transient global amnesia?

No definite pathological correlate

Seemingly out of the blue

Precipitating events include: sex, immersion in cold water, emotional stress

19

Describe the state of self-idenitity in TGA?

Intact, no disruption

20

What is PTA?

Post traumatic amnesia

Period of time after traumatic brain injury in which person is unable to form new memories

21

What is PTA a predictor of?

Key predictor of severity of injury

22

Describe the symptoms of PTA?

Anterograde amnesia

Sleep disturbance

Agitation

General confusion 

23

How does PTA resolve?

Spontaneously

24

What is the most common cause of dementia?

Alzheimer's disease

(50% of all cases)

25

What is the major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease?

Age

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26

What is MCI?

Mild cognitive impairment

Transitional phase between normal ageing and dementia

27

How do patients with MCI present?

Slef-reported memory complaint, hx of 6-12 months

28

How do patients with MCI perform on objective measures of memory?

Mild impairment (-1.5 SD)

29

Describe the general cognitive functioning of MCI patients?

Unaffected

30

How are ADLS affected in MCI?

Unaffected

Normal capacity to perform tasks

31

What is the benefit of treating MCI with medication?

Can slow progression and reduce symptoms

Not a cure though

32

How does the pathology of Alzheimer's disease change across its stages?

Pathology moves to different areas of the brain as symptoms become more apparaent 

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33

Describe the early memory complaints in MCI?

Name-face association

Object-place association

(word pairs that have no semantic relationship)

34

Describe the language impairment in Alzheimer's disease?

Fluent, empty language

Circumlocution 

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