Describe the relationship between subjective memory complaints and objective assessment?
Subject complaint does not necessarily predict memory performace, but may pre-date formal deficits in some cases of dementia
The processes used to acquire, store, retain and later retrieve information
What did the case of HM help us to understand about memory?
The role of the medial temporal lobe in memory
Describe the difference between short-term and long-term memory?
Short-term memory: immediate memory, ability to keep inofrmation online, working memory
Long-term memory: storing information over minutes, hours, years for later retrieval
Describe how memory can be broken down into different types?
Describe procedural memory?
Long term, implicit memory
Which types of memory typically do or do not break down in disease states?
Non-declarative (procedural) memory typically stays intact
Declarative memory typically breaks down
Describe episodic memory?
Events in a personal context, including place, time and emotional tone
Describe semantic memory?
General facts that are not specific to the individual and are not contextual
Describe the main system in the brain that is important for memory?
Hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, perirhinal cortex
How are the different parts of the hippocampus important in different diseases?
Different areas of hippocampus can break down differentially in different diseases
Describe how memory differs in the left vs right hippocampus?
Differs depending on dominance
LEFT: verbal memory
RIGHT: non-verbal memory
Describe some general causes of memory impairment?
Briefyl describe the neuropathology of temporal lobe epilsepsy?
Hippocampal sclerosis: cell loss, gliosis (scarring), hardening
What type of memory disturbance do TLE patients generally present with?
Declarative memory disturbance
List some of the other midline structures (besides hippocampus) that are important in memory?
Mesial temporal region
What is TGA?
Transient global amnesia
Striking anterograde amnesia
Describe the pathology of transient global amnesia?
No definite pathological correlate
Seemingly out of the blue
Precipitating events include: sex, immersion in cold water, emotional stress
Describe the state of self-idenitity in TGA?
Intact, no disruption
What is PTA?
Post traumatic amnesia
Period of time after traumatic brain injury in which person is unable to form new memories
What is PTA a predictor of?
Key predictor of severity of injury
Describe the symptoms of PTA?
How does PTA resolve?
What is the most common cause of dementia?
(50% of all cases)
What is the major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease?
What is MCI?
Mild cognitive impairment
Transitional phase between normal ageing and dementia
How do patients with MCI present?
Slef-reported memory complaint, hx of 6-12 months
How do patients with MCI perform on objective measures of memory?
Mild impairment (-1.5 SD)
Describe the general cognitive functioning of MCI patients?
How are ADLS affected in MCI?
Normal capacity to perform tasks
What is the benefit of treating MCI with medication?
Can slow progression and reduce symptoms
Not a cure though
How does the pathology of Alzheimer's disease change across its stages?
Pathology moves to different areas of the brain as symptoms become more apparaent
Describe the early memory complaints in MCI?
(word pairs that have no semantic relationship)
Describe the language impairment in Alzheimer's disease?
Fluent, empty language