Face, scalp and parotid Flashcards Preview

Neuroscience > Face, scalp and parotid > Flashcards

Flashcards in Face, scalp and parotid Deck (43):
1

What are the margins of the scalp?

From external occipital protuberance posteriorly to supraorbital margins anteriorly 

Extends to the level of the zygomatic arches laterally

2

What are the layers of the scalp, from external to internal?

Skin

Dense connective tissue

Aponeurotic layer (of occipitofrontalis)

Loose connective tissue

Pericranium

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3

Which layer of the scalp allows it to move?

Loose connective tissue

4

Which two muscles form the aponeurotic layer of the scalp?

Occipitalis and frontalis

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5

What are the actions of occipitalis and frontalis?

Move the scalp and raise the eyebrows

6

What happens when a laceration to the scalp divides the aponeurosis?

Wound will gape, as occipitalis and frontalis will pull in opposite directions

7

In which layer of the scalp is the neurovascular plane found?

Dense connective tissue

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8

Why does a scalp laceration bleed so profusely?

1: There is a rich vascular arrangement within the scalp, with many anastamoses between branches of the internal and external carotid arteries 

2: The dense connective tissue has fibrous septa, that adhere to vessels and prevent constriction 

 

9

What are the layers of the face?

Skin

Dense connective tissue

Muscles of facial expression

Pericranium

10

Whta do the facial muscles attach to?

Arise from bone or fascia and attach to skin of face

11

How are the facial muscles organised?

Organised to surround the facial orifices; either act as sphincters or dilators 

12

Describe the general properties of sphincter and dilator facial muscles?

Sphincters: circular, name 'ocularis'

Dilators: span out from corners, name 'depressor' or 'levator'

13

Which cranial nerve supplies the facial muscles?

CN VII

Facial nerve

14

What is the embryological origin of the facial muscles?

Second pharyngeal arch

15

Describe the dermatomes of the head and neck?

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16

Which nerves supply the dermatomes of the head and neck posterior to the ears?

Dorsal rami or cervical spinal nerves (C2 and C3)

17

Where is the ganglion of the trigeminal nerve found?

Petrous part of temporal bone

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18

Which cranial nerve is responsible for sensation of the face?

CN V

Trigeminal nerve (V1, V2 & V3)

19

Which two major arteries give branches that supply the face?

Internal carotid

External carotid

20

List the arterial branches to the face that arise from the internal carotid artery? What do the supply?

Supraorbital branches

Supratrochlear branches

Both supply the centre of the forehead

21

Which gives off a greater blood supply to the face: the internal carotid or the external carotid?

External carotid

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22

List the branches of the external carotid artery that supply the face?

Facial artery

Superficial temporal artery

Occipital artery

Posterior auricular artery

 

23

Which branch of the external carotid artery gives the most extensive blood supply to the face?

Facial artery

24

Describe the course of the facial artery?

Winds over inferior angle of mandible

Has tortuous course over the face to the medial angle of the eye

Sends branches off to nose, cheeks, etc.

25

Describe the course of the superficial temporal artery?

Runs over zygomatic arch

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26

What does the superficial temporal artery supply?

Side of scalp

27

What is the major venous drainage of the face?

Facial vein

28

How can the facial vein be distinguished from the facial artery?

The facial vein is much less tortuous

29

Describe the venous drainage of the face?

Veins accompany the arteries and mirror them

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30

In which area of the face may communication between the venous drainage of the face and cavernous sinus occur?

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31

Describe the lymph drainage of the face and scalp?

Lymph drains into a ring of lymph nodes which surround the base of the skull

Submental nodes, submandibular nodes, pre-auricular and parotid nodes, mastoid nodes and occipital nodes

All drain into deep cervical nodes 

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32

What is the parotid gland?

A serous salivary gland

33

Where does the parotid gland sit?

Below zygomatic arch

In front of mastoid process and ear

Above angle of mandible 

Behind masseter

Overlies styloid process of temporal bone

 

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34

What encloses the parotid gland?

Thick parotid fascia

35

How does saliva travel from the parotid gland to the oral cavity?

Parotid duct

36

Describe the course of tje parotid duct?

Emerges from anterior border of gland onto masseter

Then turns inwards and pierces buccinator to enter the oral cavity near the second molar

37

List the structures that lie within the parotid, superficial to deep?

1. CN VII

2. Retromandibular vein

3. External carotid artery

Parotid lymph nodes are scattered throughout

38

Describe the pathway of the facial nerve?

Exits skull via stylomastoid foramen > goes through auditory meatus, and has a short course through the temporal bone > gives off posterior auricular arch (to occipitalis) > enters substance of parotid gland > creates plexiform arrangement - pes anserinus > gives off five terminal branches

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39

What are the five terminal branches of the facial nerve?

Temporal 

Zygomatic

Buccal

Mandibular

Cervical 

(Tall Zulus Bear Many Children)

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40

How is the retromandibular vein formed?

By superficial temporal and maxillary veins

41

What happens to the external carotid artery once it enters the parotid gland?

Divides into maxillary and superifical temporal arteries

42

Describe the risks associated with surgery in the parotid area?

Facial nerve lesion > partial or complete paralysis of facial muscles ipsilaterally, flattening of nasolabial folds, no movement of eyes

43

What is the most common cause of facial nerve palsy?

Bell's palsy (unknown cause, maybe post-viral)