In which lobe of the brain is memory localised?
Medial temporal lobe
What did HM teach us about memory?
Medial temporal lobe, in particular the hippocampus, are important for forming memories
Which form of memory was still intact in HM?
Procedural memory (implicit memory)
Some implicit memories don't require attention or conscious recall
Decsribe the difference between conscious and unconscious memory?
Conscious: explicit, declarative
Unconscious: implicit, non-declarative
Where in the medial temporal lobe are memories stored?
Describe the study about hippocampal size in London cabbies?
Changes in hippocampal grey matter acquired with experience
Which receptor type is implicated in forming memories?
Describe its structure?
Severa subtypes, composed of different compositions of NR1 (always present), NR2A and NR2B
Describe the effect of a lack of the NMDA receptor in the hippocampus?
Impaired learning/memory formation
Which neuronal plasticity mechanism is thought to underly the formation of new memories?
How is it induced?
Late long term potentiation
Induced by providing multiple frequency stimulation
(Neurons that fire together wire together, strengthen particular synapses)
Why does late LTP take more time?
Require protein synthesis to chnage synapses and lay down new memories
Which changes in the NMDA receptor led to enhanced memory in mice?
Shift to NR2B subunit
Why is the NR2B subunit thought to enhance memory?
During development, allows more Ca through and enhanced synaptic plasticity
Describe the effect of extending the NR2B receptor on synaptic plasticity?
Increases synaptic strength
When is the grey matter thickest in the brain?
What implications does this have for plasticity?
Thickest when young
Therefore, brain is most plastic when young
How can exercise benefit the brain?
What clinical implications does this have?
Release of growth factors and generation of new neurons
Improvements in mood and memory
Increased blood flow to brain
So, get patients moving quicker after brain injury to improve outcomes
How can the external environment be manipulated to facilitate positive brain changes?
Increased cognitive stimulaion