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Flashcards in Learning and memory Deck (16):

In which lobe of the brain is memory localised?

Medial temporal lobe 


What did HM teach us about memory?

Medial temporal lobe, in particular the hippocampus, are important for forming memories


Which form of memory was still intact in HM?


Procedural memory (implicit memory)

Some implicit memories don't require attention or conscious recall


Decsribe the difference between conscious and unconscious memory?

Conscious: explicit, declarative

Unconscious: implicit, non-declarative

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Where in the medial temporal lobe are memories stored?



Describe the study about hippocampal size in London cabbies?

Changes in hippocampal grey matter acquired with experience 

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Which receptor type is implicated in forming memories?

Describe its structure?

NMDA receptor 

Severa subtypes, composed of different compositions of NR1 (always present), NR2A and NR2B

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Describe the effect of a lack of the NMDA receptor in the hippocampus?

Impaired learning/memory formation 

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Which neuronal plasticity mechanism is thought to underly the formation of new memories?

How is it induced?

Late long term potentiation 

Induced by providing multiple frequency stimulation

(Neurons that fire together wire together, strengthen particular synapses) 

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Why does late LTP take more time?

Require protein synthesis to chnage synapses and lay down new memories 

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Which changes in the NMDA receptor led to enhanced memory in mice?

Shift to NR2B subunit 

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Why is the NR2B subunit thought to enhance memory?

During development, allows more Ca through and enhanced synaptic plasticity


Describe the effect of extending the NR2B receptor on synaptic plasticity?

Increases synaptic strength 

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When is the grey matter thickest in the brain?

What implications does this have for plasticity?

Thickest when young

Therefore, brain is most plastic when young 

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How can exercise benefit the brain?

What clinical implications does this have?

Release of growth factors and generation of new neurons

Improvements in mood and memory

Increased blood flow to brain


So, get patients moving quicker after brain injury to improve outcomes 


How can the external environment be manipulated to facilitate positive brain changes?

Increased cognitive stimulaion

Better lighting 

Physical exercise

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