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Flashcards in Overview of brainstem organisation Deck (29):
1

What does the brainstem act as a gateway between?

Spinal cord and higher cortical areas

2

What are the functions of the brainstem?

Reflexive and unconscious behaviour

Modulation of various arousal and conscious states

3

What are the three major components of the brainstem?

Midbrain

Pons

Medulla

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4

Describe the location of the brainstem?

Posterior cranial fossa

Extends from mamillary bodies rostrally to pyramidal decussation caudally

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5

Describe the characteristic features of the midbrain, pons and medulla on the dorsal aspect of the brainstem?

Midbrain: superior and inferior colliculi

Pons: limited by fourth ventricle, facial collculi

Medulla: dorsal columns, nuclei-gracile and cuneate tubercle 

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6

Which part of the brainstem connects to the cerebellum?

Pons

7

Describe the characteristic features of the mibrain, pons and medulla on the ventral aspect of the brainstem?

Mibrain: cerebral peduncles

Pons: cerebellar peduncles (superior, middle, inferior)

Medulla: inferior olivary nuclei, pyramidal decussation

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8

What are peduncles?

Large white matter tracts

9

How is the pins attached to the cerebellum?

Via the cerebellar peduncles

10

What is the tectum?

The roof of the brainstem

Part of the midbrain

11

What is the tegmentum?

Stucutre that is continuous with the spinal cord 

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12

What are the important features of the tectum?

Inferior and superior colliculi

13

What are the important features of the tegmentum?

Cranial nerve nuclei

Reticular formation

14

What is the basis in the brainstem?

What is it important for?

Basilar pons

Important for descending motor control

15

Describe the functional divisions of the brainstem?

Ventral: motor control

Dorsal: cranial nerves and their regulation 

16

Decsribe the proportion of tectum, tegmentum and basis at each level of the brainstem?

Blue - tectum; Green - tegmentum; Red - basilar part

From superior to inferior: mibrain, pons, medulla

 

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17

Describe the way in which the cranial nerves exit the cranium?

CN III-XII exit brainstem in order, rostral to caudally

Most exit ventral surface, except CN IV

 

 

 

18

Describe the rule of four for the cranial nerves?

4 CN exit the medulla (CNIX-XII)

4 CN exit the pons (CNV-VIII)

4 CN exit above the pons (2 in the midbrain- CNIII&IV)

19

Where do sensory nuclei of the cranial nevres develop from? Where do motor nuclei develop from?

Sensory: alar plate

Motor: basal plate

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20

How are the cranial nerve nuclei organised within the brainstem?

Positioned in columns (6 either side of midline)

Grouped based on similar functions

Motor nuclei - midline

Sensory nuclei - lateral

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21

What are the three motor and three sensory columns for cranial nerve nuclei that lie within the brainstem?

MOTOR: general somatic motor, branchial motor, general visceral

SENSORY: general and special visceral, general somatic, special somatic

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22

Within which structure is the reticular formation found?

Tegmentum

23

What is the reticular formation continuous with rostrally and caudally?

Rostrally: nuclei in the thalamus

Caudally: intermediate grey matter of spinal cord

24

What are the functions of the rostral and caudal elements of the reticular formation?

Rostral (midbrain and upper pons): maintain alert conscious state

Caudal (pons and medulla): motor reflex and autonomic functions

25

What is the ascending reticular activating system?

Rostral element of the reticular formation

Long projection systems that modulate forebrain activity

26

At which levels of the brainstem is the reticular formation found?

All levels

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27

What are the two major ascending pathways that traverse the brainstem?

Dorsal column-medial lemniscus system

Anterolateral system

 

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28

What is the major descending pathway that traverses the brainstem?

Corticospinal tract

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29

What do the dorsal aspects of the brainstem contain? What do the ventral spects contain?

Dorsal: cranial nerve nuclei, reticular formation

Ventral: structures associated with descending motor tracts