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Flashcards in Disorders of language Deck (17):
1

What is an aphasia?

Disturbance in language as a result of brain damage

2

How is a language disorder different to a speech disorder?

Speech disorders may be present when language abilities are still intact

eg. dental anaesthesia - difficult to speak

 

3

What are some of the causes of aphasia?

Acute onset: stroke, penetrating head injury, surgical resection

Insidious onset: dementia, neoplastic change

Paroxysmal-episodic: focal seizures, migraine

4

Describe the lateralisation of language?

Left hemispheric dominance

95% of right handers and 70% of left handers have left lateralised language

5

Describe the role of the right hemisphere in language?

May play a role in non-propositional speech, prososdy and paralinguistic aspects of speech

6

What is the arterial supply to the language areas of the brain?

Middle cerebral artery - superior and inferior divisions

7

What do the superior and inferior divisions of the middle cerebral artery supply?

8

Describe the difference between language production and language selection?

 

Production: producing appropriate output sequences

Selection: choosing appropriate content 

9

Which aspects of language (production or selection) are fluent and non-fluent language disorders associated with?

Fluent: selection

Non-fluent: production

10

Describe the major differences between fluent and non-fluent aphasias?

11

Which type of language disorders are Broca's and Wernicke's aphasias?

Broca's aphasia: non-fluent aphasia

Wernicke's aphasia: fluent aphasia

12

What is the arcuate fasiculus?

A hypothetical tract that is thought to link Broca's and Wernicke's areas

13

Describe the characteristics of Wernicke's aphasia?

Fluent, jargonistic language

Impaired comprehension

No motor weakness

Right quadrantonopsia

14

Describe the characteristics of Broca's aphasia?

Non-fluent, highly effortful language

Telegrammatic speech

Preserved comprehension

Right face and arm weakness 

15

What is conduction aphasia?

Fluent aphasia, but more meaningful than Wernicke's type

Intact basic auditory comprehension

Poor repetition of words

16

What is transcortical motor aphasia?

Non-fluent aphasia

Muteness at most severe

Repetition preserved

17

Describe the mechanisms of recovery from aphasias?

Contralateral transfer

Ipsilateral reorganisation