Disorders of language Flashcards Preview

Neuroscience > Disorders of language > Flashcards

Flashcards in Disorders of language Deck (17):

What is an aphasia?

Disturbance in language as a result of brain damage


How is a language disorder different to a speech disorder?

Speech disorders may be present when language abilities are still intact

eg. dental anaesthesia - difficult to speak



What are some of the causes of aphasia?

Acute onset: stroke, penetrating head injury, surgical resection

Insidious onset: dementia, neoplastic change

Paroxysmal-episodic: focal seizures, migraine


Describe the lateralisation of language?

Left hemispheric dominance

95% of right handers and 70% of left handers have left lateralised language


Describe the role of the right hemisphere in language?

May play a role in non-propositional speech, prososdy and paralinguistic aspects of speech


What is the arterial supply to the language areas of the brain?

Middle cerebral artery - superior and inferior divisions

A image thumb

What do the superior and inferior divisions of the middle cerebral artery supply?

A image thumb

Describe the difference between language production and language selection?


Production: producing appropriate output sequences

Selection: choosing appropriate content 


Which aspects of language (production or selection) are fluent and non-fluent language disorders associated with?

Fluent: selection

Non-fluent: production


Describe the major differences between fluent and non-fluent aphasias?

A image thumb

Which type of language disorders are Broca's and Wernicke's aphasias?

Broca's aphasia: non-fluent aphasia

Wernicke's aphasia: fluent aphasia


What is the arcuate fasiculus?

A hypothetical tract that is thought to link Broca's and Wernicke's areas

A image thumb

Describe the characteristics of Wernicke's aphasia?

Fluent, jargonistic language

Impaired comprehension

No motor weakness

Right quadrantonopsia

A image thumb

Describe the characteristics of Broca's aphasia?

Non-fluent, highly effortful language

Telegrammatic speech

Preserved comprehension

Right face and arm weakness 

A image thumb

What is conduction aphasia?

Fluent aphasia, but more meaningful than Wernicke's type

Intact basic auditory comprehension

Poor repetition of words


What is transcortical motor aphasia?

Non-fluent aphasia

Muteness at most severe

Repetition preserved


Describe the mechanisms of recovery from aphasias?

Contralateral transfer

Ipsilateral reorganisation