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Flashcards in General structure of the nervous system Deck (65)
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1

What is the PNS made up of?

Nerves and ganglia

2

What is the brainstem composed of?

Midbrain, pons and medulla

3

Where is the white matter located in the cortex?

Inner

4

What is white matter composed of in the cortex?

Myelinated axons and glia

5

Where is the grey matter located in the cortex?

Outer

6

What is the grey matter composed of in the cortex?

Neuron cell bodies and glia

7

What cell type is found in both they grey and white matter of the cortex?

Glial cells

8

What technique can be used to visualise only white matter tracts in the brain?

Diffusion weighted MRI

9

What can diffusion weighted MRI be utilised for?

Viewing white matter tracts in the brain

10

Where does the kink/change in direction of the brain occur?

Between midbrain and diencephalon

11

What is the consequence of the kink/change in direction of the brain?

Twist in brain axis
Dorsal shifts from being 'upwards' to 'backwards'

12

What separates the two cerebral hemispheres?

Longitudinal fissure

13

What does the longitudinal fissure separate?

Left and right cerebral hemispheres

14

What are the ridges in the cerebrum called?

Gyri

15

What are gyri?

Ridges in the cerebrum

16

What are the grooves in the cerebrum called?

Sulci

17

What are sulci?

Grooves in the cerebrum

18

What is the surface of the cerebrum?

Cerebral cortex

19

What is the functional significance of the four lobes of the cortex?

Very limited functional significance
They are arbitrary boundaries

20

Why are Brodmann areas significant?

Functional mapping of the brain, with defined boundaries that are functionally significant

21

What are Brodmann areas based on?

Cellular differences

22

How are the left and right cerebral hemispheres joined?

Corpus callosum

23

Describe the structure of the cortex?

1 cm thick
Outer grey matter, inner white matter
Layered structure (6 layers)

24

What types of neurons are found in the cortex?

Pyramidal neurons and interneurons

25

What are the major roles of the cerebellum?

Motor control
Comparing what you want to do with what you are doing
Refines execution of motor program

26

Where are most of the brain's neurons located?

Cerebellum (half of all neurons)

27

Where are basal ganglia found in the brain?

Diencephalon
Deep within brain, beneath white matter

28

What are the roles of basal ganglia?

Motor control
Selects and initiates voluntary movements

29

What is the consequence of damage to the basal ganglia?

Parkinson's Disease
Huntington's Disease

30

Within which brain structure is the thalamus found?

Diencephalon