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Flashcards in Cranial Nerves Deck (54):
1

What do cranial nerves supply?

Supply somatic and visceral motor and sensory information to the head

CN IX and X supply visceral sensory and motor innervation to neck, chest and abdomen

2

Which two cranial nerves are different to the rest in terms of the strucutres that they innervate?

CN IX and X

Supply visceral sensory and motor innervation to neck, chest and abdomen

3

List the cranial nerves?

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4

Which cranial nerves are purely sensory?

Which are purely motor?

Which are mixed?

Sensory: 1, 2, 8

Motor: 3, 4, 6, 11, 12

Mixed/both: 5, 7, 9, 10

Some say money matters but my brother says big boobs matter most

5

What are cranial nerves connected to centrally?

Cranial nerve nuclei

6

Describe the broad organisation of cranial nerve nuclei?

Organised rostrally to caudally

Roughly organised in order of target tissues

 

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7

Which cranial nerve nuclei are located in the brainstem?

Nuclei 3-12

8

How are the cranial nerve nuclei arranged in the brainstem?

6 columns either side of midline

Motor nuclei are located in the 3 columns close to midline

Sensory nuclei are located in the 3 lateral columns 

9

Where are the motor nerve nuclei located in the brainstem?

3 columns close to midline

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10

What are the three motor columns located in the brainstem?

Medial to lateral:

Somatic

Branchial

Visceral

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11

Which cranial nerve nuclei are in the somatic motor column? Where in the brainstem are these nuclei located?

Extra-ocular muscles: CN 3, 4, 6

Tongue muscles: CN 12

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12

Which cranial nerve nuclei are located in the branchial motor column? Where in the brainstem are they located?

Muscles of mastication: CN 5 (V3)

Muscles of facial expression: CN 7

Muscles of pharynx and larynx: CN 9, 10

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13

What is the nucleus ambiguus? Where is it located?

Mostly a motor nucleus

Lies behind inferior olive in medulla

Contains nuclei of CN IX (stylopharyngeus) and X (levator palati)

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14

Which cranial nerve nuclei lie in the visceral efferents motor column? Where in the brainstem are they located?

Motor innervation to smooth muscles: CN 3, 7, 9, 10

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15

Where are the sensory nerve nuclei located?

In lateral 3 columns 

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16

What are the three sensory columns located in the brainstem?

Medial to lateral:

Visceral sensory

Somatic sensory

Special sensory

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17

Which cranial nerve nuclei are located in the visceral sensory column? Where in the brainstem are they located?

Taste: CN 7, 9, 10

Autonomic: CN 9, 10

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18

What is the Nucelus Solitarius? Describe its arrangement?

Nucelus for visceral sensation

Extends from pons to nucleus gracilis

Rostral: gustatory nucleus

Caudal: visceral sensory division

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19

Which cranial nerve nuclei are in the somatic sensory column of the brainstem? Where are they located?

Sensation to face, mucosa of nose and mouth, cranial dura: CN 5

Skin behind ear and lining of EAM: CN 7, 9, 10

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20

Which cranial nerve nuclei are located in the special sensory column of the brainstem? Where in the brainstem are they located?

Hearing and equilibrium: CN 8 

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21

Which cranial nerve nuclei arise from the midbrain? Which from the pons? Which from the medulla?

Rule of fours:

Midbrain: 3, 4

Pons: 5, 6, 7, 8

Medulla: 9, 10, 11, 12

22

Describe the locations of all of the cranial nerve nuclei in the brainstem and spinal cord?

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23

Describe the olfactory nerve?

Sense of smell

Exits skull at cribiform plate

24

Describe the optic nerve?

Sight

Exits at optic canal

Formed from axons of ganlion cells in the retina

25

What is the optic nerve formed from?

Axons of ganglion cells in the retina

26

Describe the nerves of ocular motion?

CN 3, 4, 6

CN III innervates 4

CN IV innervates superior oblique

CN VI innervates lateral rectus 

Act in a coordinated fashion to move the eyes

Exit skull at SOF

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27

Describe the oculomotor nerve?

Motor: Innervates 4 extraocular muscles and elevates eyelid

PS: Innervates iris and ciliary muscle

Exits skull at SOF

28

Describe the passage of the nerves of ocular motion?

All 3 go through cavernous sinus and SOF

4 and 6 go through common tendinous ring 

29

Which nerves exit the skull via the SOF?

3, 4, 6, V1

30

Describe the groups that cranial nerves exit the skull in? Why is this signifcant?

Nerves that exit the skull together will be affected by disease together 

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31

What does the trigeminal nerve innervate?

Sensory: innervates face and inside mouth

Motor: innervates muscles of mastication and tensor tympani

 

32

Describe the three divisions of the sensory division trigeminal nerve? What does each innervate?

V1: opthalmic

V2: maxillary

V3: mandibular

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33

Which structure does the motor division of the trigeminal nerve travel with?

V3 division of sensory division of trigeminal nerve 

 

(In picture, blue=sensory, red=motor)

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34

Where do each of the sensory divisions of the trigeminal nerve exit the skull?

V1: SOF

V2: foramen rotundum

V3: foramen ovale

35

Describe the cranial nerves involved in the corneal blink reflex? 

What is the reflex a test of?

Sensory: CN 6

Motor: CN 7

(both located in pons)

Used as a test of pontine function

36

What does the facial nerve innervate?

Motor: muscles of facial expression, stapedius muscle, part of digastric muscle

PS: lacrimal, sublingual and submandibular salivary glands

Taste: anterior 2/3 tongue and soft palate

Sensory: EAM

37

Describe the course of the facial nerve?

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38

Describe the terminal branches of the facial nerve?

Temporal

Zygomatic

Buccal

Mandibular

Cervical

(Tall Zulus Bear Many Children)

 

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39

Which structure do the terminal branches of the facial nerve pass through? Do they innervate this structure?

Parotid gland

Do NOT innervate it

40

Describe the vestibulocochlear nerve?

Responsible for hearing and balance 

Exits skull via internal acoustic meatus

41

Through which foramen does the facial nerve exit the skull?

Internal acoustic meatus

42

Describe the nuclei of CN VIII in the brainstem?

Dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei

Four vestibular nuclei

43

Describe the glossopharyngeal nerve?

Sensory: posterior 1/3 tongue, pharynx, middle ear and carotid body

Taste: posterior 1/3 tongue

PS: parotid gland

Motor: stylopharyngeus

Exits the skull via the jugular foramen

44

Describe the pathway of the glossopharyngeal nerve?

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45

What does the vagus nerve innervate?

Motor: soft palate, pharynx, larynx, upper oesophagus, 1 tongue muscle (palatoglossus)

PS: pharynx to upper abdomen

Sensory: pharyn, larynx, oesophagus

Input from baroreceptors and chemoreceptors of aortic arch

46

Where does the vagus nerve exit the skull?

Jugular foramen 

47

What are the sensory inputs and motor outputs involved in the gag reflex? What does this reflex test?

Sensory: CN IX to pharynx

Motor: CN X to pharynx

Test of medullary function

48

Are the motor cranial nerves upper or lower motor neurons?

Lower motor neurons

49

Describe the general symptoms of a lower motor neuron problems in a cranial nerve?

Flaccid paraslysis and atrophy

50

What is unique about the pathway of the spinal accessory nerve?

Nucleus is in spinal cord

ENTERS cranium via foramen magnum

Then travels with CN X roots and exits via jugular foramen 

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51

What does the spinal accessory nerve innervate?

Motor input to sternomastoid and upper part of trapezius

'Shrug shoulders and turn head'

52

What happens if CN XI input is lost on one side?

Can't turn head in opposite direction

53

Describe the hypoglossal nerve?

Motor innervation to intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of tongue (except palatoglossus)

Exits skull via hypoglossal foramen 

54

What happens if CN XII input is lost on one side?

Tongue deviation