What do cranial nerves supply?
Supply somatic and visceral motor and sensory information to the head
CN IX and X supply visceral sensory and motor innervation to neck, chest and abdomen
Which two cranial nerves are different to the rest in terms of the strucutres that they innervate?
CN IX and X
Supply visceral sensory and motor innervation to neck, chest and abdomen
List the cranial nerves?
Which cranial nerves are purely sensory?
Which are purely motor?
Which are mixed?
Sensory: 1, 2, 8
Motor: 3, 4, 6, 11, 12
Mixed/both: 5, 7, 9, 10
Some say money matters but my brother says big boobs matter most
What are cranial nerves connected to centrally?
Cranial nerve nuclei
Describe the broad organisation of cranial nerve nuclei?
Organised rostrally to caudally
Roughly organised in order of target tissues
Which cranial nerve nuclei are located in the brainstem?
How are the cranial nerve nuclei arranged in the brainstem?
6 columns either side of midline
Motor nuclei are located in the 3 columns close to midline
Sensory nuclei are located in the 3 lateral columns
Where are the motor nerve nuclei located in the brainstem?
3 columns close to midline
What are the three motor columns located in the brainstem?
Medial to lateral:
Which cranial nerve nuclei are in the somatic motor column? Where in the brainstem are these nuclei located?
Extra-ocular muscles: CN 3, 4, 6
Tongue muscles: CN 12
Which cranial nerve nuclei are located in the branchial motor column? Where in the brainstem are they located?
Muscles of mastication: CN 5 (V3)
Muscles of facial expression: CN 7
Muscles of pharynx and larynx: CN 9, 10
What is the nucleus ambiguus? Where is it located?
Mostly a motor nucleus
Lies behind inferior olive in medulla
Contains nuclei of CN IX (stylopharyngeus) and X (levator palati)
Which cranial nerve nuclei lie in the visceral efferents motor column? Where in the brainstem are they located?
Motor innervation to smooth muscles: CN 3, 7, 9, 10
Where are the sensory nerve nuclei located?
In lateral 3 columns
What are the three sensory columns located in the brainstem?
Medial to lateral:
Which cranial nerve nuclei are located in the visceral sensory column? Where in the brainstem are they located?
Taste: CN 7, 9, 10
Autonomic: CN 9, 10
What is the Nucelus Solitarius? Describe its arrangement?
Nucelus for visceral sensation
Extends from pons to nucleus gracilis
Rostral: gustatory nucleus
Caudal: visceral sensory division
Which cranial nerve nuclei are in the somatic sensory column of the brainstem? Where are they located?
Sensation to face, mucosa of nose and mouth, cranial dura: CN 5
Skin behind ear and lining of EAM: CN 7, 9, 10
Which cranial nerve nuclei are located in the special sensory column of the brainstem? Where in the brainstem are they located?
Hearing and equilibrium: CN 8
Which cranial nerve nuclei arise from the midbrain? Which from the pons? Which from the medulla?
Rule of fours:
Midbrain: 3, 4
Pons: 5, 6, 7, 8
Medulla: 9, 10, 11, 12
Describe the locations of all of the cranial nerve nuclei in the brainstem and spinal cord?
Describe the olfactory nerve?
Sense of smell
Exits skull at cribiform plate
Describe the optic nerve?
Exits at optic canal
Formed from axons of ganlion cells in the retina
What is the optic nerve formed from?
Axons of ganglion cells in the retina
Describe the nerves of ocular motion?
CN 3, 4, 6
CN III innervates 4
CN IV innervates superior oblique
CN VI innervates lateral rectus
Act in a coordinated fashion to move the eyes
Exit skull at SOF
Describe the oculomotor nerve?
Motor: Innervates 4 extraocular muscles and elevates eyelid
PS: Innervates iris and ciliary muscle
Exits skull at SOF
Describe the passage of the nerves of ocular motion?
All 3 go through cavernous sinus and SOF
4 and 6 go through common tendinous ring
Which nerves exit the skull via the SOF?
3, 4, 6, V1
Describe the groups that cranial nerves exit the skull in? Why is this signifcant?
Nerves that exit the skull together will be affected by disease together