Chapter 10 Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Chapter 10 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (237):
0

Any body part attached to a main structure

appendage

1

Place of union between two or more bones; also called a joint

articulation

2

Latticelike arrangement of bony plates occurring at the ends of long bones

cancellous

3

Ligaments that cross each other, forming an X within the notch between the femoral condyles

cruciate ligaments

4

Production and development of blood cells, normally in the bone marrow

hematopoiesis

5

contractile cells that provide movement of an organ or body part

fibers

6

Muscles whose action is under voluntary control

Skeletal muscle or voluntary muscle or striated muscles

7

Muscle found only in the heart, involuntary

Cardiac muscle

8

Muscles whose actions are involuntary, found in visceral organs, walls of arteries and respiratory passages, and urinary and reproductive ducts

Smooth muscle

9

In ________ muscle fibers arise directly from bone

fleshy attachments

10

In __________ the connective tissue converges at the end of the muscle to become continuous and indistinguishable from the periosteum

fibrous attachments

11

When the fibrous attachment spans a large area of a bone the attachment is called an

aponeurosis

12

When connective tissue fibers form a cord or strap it is called a

tendon

13

Flexible bands of fibrous tissue that are highly adapted for resisting strains and are one of the principal mechanical factors that hold bones close together in a synovial joint

ligament

14

Adduction

moves closer to the midline

15

Abduction

Moves away from the midline

16

Flexion

decreases the angle of a joint

17

Extension

increases the angle of a joint

18

Rotation

moves a bone around its own axis

19

pronation

turns the palm down

20

supination

turns the palm up

21

Inversion

moves the sole of the foot inward

22

Eversion

moves the sole of the foot outward

23

Dorsiflexion

elevates the foot

24

plantar flexion

lowers the foot (points the toes)

25

produce blood cells within bone marrow

hematopoiesis

26

cube shaped
consist of a core of spongy bone
enclosed in a thin surface layer of compact bone

short bone

27

include the bones that cannot be classified as short or long because of their complex shapes

irregular bones

28

provide a broad surface for muscular attachment or protection for internal organs

flat bones

29

found in the appendages (extremities) of the body, such as the legs, arms, and fingers

long bones

30

the shaft, or long, main portion of a bone. Consists of compact bone that forms a cylinder and surrounds a central canal called the medullary cavity.

diaphysis

31

cavity that contains fatty yellow marrow in adults and consists primarily of fat cells and a few scattered blood cells

medullary cavity or marrow cavity

32

A type of elastic connective tissue that provides a smooth surface for movement of joints

articular cartilage

33

surrounded by a layer of compact bone, within it is red bone marrow

spongy bone

34

A dense, white, fibrous membrane, that covers the remaining surface of the bone

periosteum

35

In growing bones, the inner layer that contains the bone forming cells

osteoblasts

36

Eight bones that enclose and protect the brain and the organs of hearing and equilibrium

cranium (skull)

37

incomplete bone formation

soft spot

38

bone that forms the anterior portion of the skull and the roof of the bony cavities that contain the eyeballs

frontal bone

39

______ bone that is situated on each side of the skull just behind the frontal bone

parietal bone

40

________ bone forms the back and base of the skull

occipital bone

41

Two ________ one on each side of the skull, form part of the lower cranium

temporal bones

42

mandible

lower jaw bone

43

mastication

chewing

44

hard palate

roof of the mouth

45

If the maxillary bones do not fuse properly before birth what congenital defect forms

cleft palate

46

ankyl/o

stiffness
bent
crooked

47

arthr/o

joint

48

kyph/o

humpback

49

lamin/o

lamina (part of the vertebral arch)

50

lord/o

curve
swayback

51

myel/o

bone marrow
spinal cord

52

orth/o

straight

53

oste/o

bone

54

ped/o, ped/i

foot
child

55

scoli/o

crooked
bent

56

thorac/o

chest

57

acromi/o

acromion (projection of the scapula)

58

brachi/o

arm

59

calcane/o

calcaneum
(heel bone)

60

carp/o

carpus
wrist bone

61

cephal/o

head

62

cervic/o

neck
cervix uteri (neck of the uterus)

63

clavicul/o

clavicle (collar bone)

64

cost/o

ribs

65

crani/o

cranium (skull)

66

dactyl/o

fingers
toes

67

femor/o

femur (thigh bone)

68

fibul/o

fibula (smaller bone of the lower leg)

69

humer/o

humerus (upper arm bone)

70

ili/o

ilium (lateral, flaring portion of the hip bone)

71

ischi/o

ischium (lower portion of the hip bone)

72

lumb/o

loins (lower back)

73

metacarp/o

metacarpus (hand bones)

74

metatars/o

metatarsus (foot bones)

75

patell/o

patella (kneecap)

76

pelv/i

pelvis

77

phalang/o

phalanges (bones of the fingers and toes)

78

pod/o

foot

79

pub/o

pelvis bone (anterior part of the pelvic bone)

80

radi/o

radiation, x-ray
radius (lower arm bone on the thumb side)

81

spondyl/o, vertebr/o

vertebrae (backbone)

82

stern/o

sternum (breastbone)

83

tibi/o

tibia (larger bone of the lower leg)

84

leiomy/o

smooth muscle (visceral)

85

muscul/o, my/o

muscle

86

rhabd/o

rod-shaped (striated muscle)

87

rhabdomy/o

rod-shaped (striated) muscle

88

chondr/o

band, fascia (fibrous membrane supporting and separating muscles)

89

fibr/o

fiber
fibrous tissue

90

synov/o

synovial membrane
synovial fluid

91

ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o

tendon

92

-asthenia

weakness
debility

93

-blast

embryonic cell

94

-clasia

to break
surgical fracture

95

-desis

binding
fixation (of a bone or joint)

96

-physis

growth

97

-porosis

porous

98

-sarcoma

malignant tumor of connective tissue

99

-scopy

visual examination

100

a-

without
not

101

dys-

bad
painful
difficult

102

sub-

under
below

103

supra-

above
excessive
superior

104

syn-

union
together
joined

105

The branch of medicine concerned with prevention, diagnosis, care and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders

othopedics

106

The physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders

orthopedist

107

physician who specializes in treating joint disease

rheumatologist

108

A physician that maintains that good health requires proper alignment of bones, muscles, ligaments, and nerves

doctor of osteopathy (DO)

109

A broken bone is called a

fracture

110

A fracture in which the bone is broken but no external wound exists

closed (simple) fracture

111

A fracture that involves a broken bone and an external wound that leads to the site of fracture

open (compound) fracture

112

A fracture in which a broken bone has injured an internal organ

complicated fracture

113

A fracture with a bone that has broken or splintered into pieces

comminuted fracture

114

A fracture where the bone is broken and one end is wedged into the interior of another bone

impacted fracture

115

A fracture that occurs when the line of fracture does not completely transverse the entire bone

incomplete fracture

116

A fracture when the broken bone does not extend through the entire thickness of the bone; that is one side of the bone is broken and one side of the bone is bent

greenstick fracture

117

A fracture at the lower end of the radius, occurs just above the wrist

colles fracture

118

A minor fracture in which all portions of the bone are in perfect alignment

hairline fracture

119

A fracture usually caused by a disease process such as a neoplasm or osteoporosis

Pathological (spontaneous) fracture

120

An infection process that encompasses all bone components, including bone marrow

osteomyelitis

121

Bacteria that may travel in the bloodstream

bacteremia

122

sequestrum

to remove

123

surgery to remove something

sequestrectomy

124

IV

intravenously

125

orally

by mouth

126

A chronic inflammation of bones, resulting in thickening and softening of bones

Paget disease
osteitis deformans

127

A common metabolic bone disorder in the elderly, particularly in postmenopausal women.

osteoporosis

128

osteopenia

bone marrow density

129

3 common deviations of the spine

scoliosis
kyphosis
lordosis

130

An abnormal lateral curvature of the spine, either to the right or left is called

scoliosis

131

An abnormal curvature of the upper portion of the spine is called

kyphosis
humpback
hunchback

132

An abnormal inward curvature of a portion of the lower portion of the spine is called

lordosis
swayback

133

An inflammation of a joint usually accompanied by pain, swelling and, commonly, changes in structure

arthritis

134

A systemic disease characterized by inflammatory changes in joints and their related structures, results in crippling deformities

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

135

exacerbations

aggravations

136

The most common form of arthritis. It is a progressive, degenerative disease that occurs when the protective cartilage at the end of the bones wear down.

Osteoarthritis
degenerative joint disease (DJD)

137

Development of new bone growth

bone spur
osteophyte

138

crepitation

crackling sound

139

A metabolic disease caused by the accumulation of uric acid crystals in the blood

Gout
gout arthritis

140

nephroliths

renal calculi

141

A genetic disease, characterized by gradual atrophy and weakening of muscle tissue

Muscular dystrophy

142

The most common type of muscular dystrophy that affects children, boys more than girls and is transmitted as a sex-linked disease passed from mother to son

Duchenne dystrophy

143

A neuromuscular disorder, that causes fluctuating weakness of certain skeletal muscle groups ( of the eyes, face and, sometimes, limbs). Characterized by destruction of the receptors in the synaptic region that respond to acetylcholine.

Myasthenia gravis (MG)

144

Transmits nerve impulses

neurotransmitter

145

difficulty swallowing

dysphagia

146

Malignancies that affect bone and arise from bone or bone tissue

primary bone cancer

147

Malignancies that arise in another region of the body and spread to bone

secondary bone cancer

148

metastasize

spread

149

Malignancies that originate from bone, fat, muscle, cartilage, bone marrow, and cells of the lymphatic system are called

sarcomas

150

What are the 3 major types of sarcomas

fibrosarcoma
osteosarcoma
Ewing sarcoma

151

_________ develops in cartilage and generally affects the pelvis, upper legs, and shoulders

Fibrosarcoma

152

_______ develops from bone tissue and generally affects the knees, upper arms, and upper legs

Osteosarcoma

153

________ develops from primitive nerve cells in bone marrow. Usually affects the shaft of long bones but may occur in the pelvis or other bones of the arms or legs.

Ewing sarcoma

154

Stiffing and immobility of a joint as a result of disease, trauma, surgery, or abnormal bone fusion

ankylosis

155

Deformity characterized by lateral deviation of the great toe as it turns in toward the second toe (angulation) which may case tissue surrounding the joint to become swollen and tender

bunion (hallux valgus)

156

Painful condition resulting from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel (wrist canal through which the flexor tendons and the median nerve pass

carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)

157

lameness, limping

claudication

158

Fibrosis of connective tissue in the skin, fascia, muscle, or joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint

contracture

159

Dry, grating sound or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together indicating a fracture or joint destruction

crepitaton

160

Increase in severity of a disease or any of its symptoms

exacerbation
flare

161

Fluid-filled tumor that most commonly develops along the tendons or joint of the wrists or hands but may also appear in the feet

ganglion cyst

162

Effusion of blood into a joint cavity

hemarthrosis

163

Rupture of a vertebral disks center (nucleus pulposus) through its outer edge and back toward the spinal canal with pressure on the adjacent spinal nerve that results in pain, numbness, or weakness in one or both legs

herniated disk

164

Loss of muscular tone or a diminished resistance to passive stretching

hypotonia

165

Malignant tumor of plasma cells (cells that help the body fight infection by producing antibodies) in the bone marrow

multiple myeloma

166

Perceived sensation following amputation of a limb that the limb still exists

phantom limb

167

Form of osteomalacia in children caused by vitamin D deficiency

rickets
rachitis

168

Fragment of necrosed bone that has become separated from surrounding tissue

sequestrum

169

Any slipping (subluxation) of a vertebra from its normal position in relationship to the one beneath it

spondylolisthesis

170

Degeneration of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae and related tissue

spondylosis

171

Tearing of ligament tissue that may be slight, moderate, or complete

sprain

172

Muscular trauma caused by violent contraction or an excessive forcible stretch

strain

173

Partial or incomplete dislocation

subluxation

174

Congenital deformity of one or both feet in which the foot is pulled downward and laterally to the side

talipes equinovarus
clubfoot

175

Use of electrical stimulation to diagnose the health of muscles and the nerve cells that control them (motor neurons)

electromyography

176

Procedure that restores a bone to its normal position

reduction

177

Reduction in which fractured bones are realigned by manipulation rather than surgery

closed

178

Reduction in which fractured bones are placed in their proper position during surgery

open reduction

179

Procedures used to restrict movement, stabilize and protect a fracture, and facilitate the healing process

bone immobilization

180

Bone immobilization by application of a solid, stiff dressing formed with plaster of paris or similar material

casting

181

Bone immobilization by application of an orthopedic device to the injured body part

splinting

182

Bone immobilization by application of weights and pulleys to align or immobilize a fracture

traction

183

Partial or complete removal of an extremity due to trauma or a circulatory disease

amputation

184

Puncture of a joint space using a needle to remove accumulated fluid

arthrocentesis

185

Surgical breaking of an ankylosed joint to provide movement

arthroclasia

186

Visual examination of the interior of a joint and its structures using a thin, flexible fiberoptic scope called an arthroscope that contains a magnifying lens, fiberoptic light, and miniature camera that projects images on a monitor

arthroscopy

187

Implantation or transplantation of bone tissue from another part of the body or from another person to serve as replacement for damaged or missing bone tissue

bone grafting

188

Excision of bursa (padlike sac or cavity found in connective tissue, usually in the vicinity of joints)

bursectomy

189

Replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute, such as an artificial extremity

prosthesis fitting

190

Surgery repeated to correct problems of a previously unsuccessful surgery or to replace a worn-out prosthesis

revision surgery

191

Revision surgery to correct misalignment of bones, broken prostheses, and bone fractures occurring around the prostheses

bone revision surgery

192

Excision of a sequestrum (segment of necrosed bone)

sequestrectomy

193

Excision of a synovial membrane

synovectomy

194

Surgical procedure to replace a hip joint damaged by a degenerative disease, commonly arthritis

total hip replacement

195

Series of radiographs taken after injection of contrast material into a joint cavity, especially the knee or shoulder, to outline the contour of the joint

arthrography

196

Noninvasive procedure that uses low-energy x-ray absorption to measure bone mineral density (BMD) and usually measures bones of the spine, hip, and forearm

bone density test
dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)

197

Radiological examination of the intervertebral disk structures with injection of a contrast medium

discography

198

Radiography of the five lumbar vertebrae and the fused sacral vertebrae, including anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views of the lower spine

lumbosacral spinal radiography

199

Radiography of the spinal cord after injection of a contrast medium to identify and study spinal distortions caused by tumors, cysts, herniated intervertebral disks, or other lesions

myelography

200

Nuclear medicine procedure that visualizes various tissues and organs after administration of a radionuclide

scintigraphy

201

Scintigraphy in which the radionuclide is injected intravenously and taken up into the bone

bone scintigraphy

202

ACL

anterior cruciate ligament

203

BE

barium enema
below the elbow

204

C1, C2, and so on

first cervical vertebrae, second cervical vertebrae, and so on

205

Ca

calcium
cancer

206

CDH

congenital dislocation of the hip

207

CTS

carpal tunnel syndrome

208

DEXA,DXA

dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry

209

DJD

degenerative joint disease

210

DO

doctor of osteopathy

211

EMG

electromyography

212

Fx

fracture

213

HD

hemodialysis
hip disarticulation
hearing distance

214

HNP

herniated nucleus pulposus
herniated disk

215

HP

hemipelvectomy

216

IM

intramuscular
infectious mononucleosis

217

IS

intracostal space

218

IV

intravenous

219

L1, L2, and so on

first lumbar vertebra
second lumbar vertebra
and so on

220

LS

lumbosacral

221

MG

myasthenia gravis

222

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

223

MS

musculoskeletal
multiple sclerosis
mental status
mitral stenosis

224

NSAIDs

nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs

225

ORTH, ortho

orthopedics

226

P

phosphorus
pulse

227

PCL

posterior cruciate ligament

228

RA

rheumatoid arthritis
right atrium

229

RF

rheumatoid factor
radio frequency

230

ROM

range of motion

231

S

shoulder diarticulation

232

THA

total hip arthroplasty

233

THR

total hip replacement

234

TKA

total knee arthroplasty

235

TKR

total knee replacement

236

TRAM

transverse rectus abdominis muscle