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the largest organ in the body

skin also called integument

1

Integumentary system

made up of the skin and accessory organs ( hair, nails, and glands)

2

Generic term for an agent (usually a hormone, such as testosterone and androsterone) that stimulates development of male characteristics

Androgen

3

Very small duct

ductule

4

State in which the regulatory mechanisms of the body maintain an internal environment within tolerable levels, despite changes in the external environment

homeostasis

5

Forming a complex substance by the union of simpler compounds or elements

synthesize

6

The 2 layers of the skin are

Epidermis and Dermis

7

Epidermis

- Relatively thin over most areas but thickest on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet
- Composed of several sublayers called strata

8

Melanocytes

- Located in the basal layer
- produce black pigment called melanin

9

albino

- An individual who cannot produce melanin
- Has marked deficiency of pigment in the eyes, hair, and skin.

10

Dermis

- The second layer of the skin
- Also called corium
- Lies directly beneath the epidermis
- Composed of living tissue and contains numerous capillaries, lymphatic vessels, and nerve endings
- Also contains hair follicles, sebaceous glands, sudoriferous glands

11

Subcutaneous layer

- Also called the hypodermis
- Binds the dermis to the underlying structures
- Composed of loose connective tissue and adipose tissue interlaced with blood vessels

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adip/o

fat

13

lip/o

fat

14

steat/o

fat

15

cutane/o

skin

16

dermat/o

skin

17

derm/o

skin

18

hidr/o

sweat

19

sudor/o

sweat

20

ichthy/o

dry, scaly

21

Kerat/o

horny tissue, hard; cornea

22

melan/o

black

23

myc/o

fungus (plural, fungi)

24

onych/o

nail

25

ungu/o

nail

26

pil/o

hair

27

trich/o

hair

28

scler/o

hardening; sclera (white of the eye)

29

seb/o

sebum, sebaceous

30

squam/o

scale

31

xen/o

foreign, strange

32

xer/o

dry

33

-cyte

cell

34

-derma

skin

35

-logist

specialist in the study of

36

-logy

study of

37

-therapy

treatment

38

an-

without, not

39

dia-

through, across

40

epi-

above, upon

41

homo-

same

42

hyper-

excessive, above normal

43

sub-

under, below

44

The medical specialty concerned with diseases that directly affect the skin and systemic diseases that manifest their effects on the skin.

Dermatology

45

The physician who specializes in diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases

dermatologist

46

Areas of tissue that have been pathologically altered by injury, wound, or infection

Lesions

47

Affects tissue over an area of definite size

localized

48

wide spread throughout the body

systemic

49

First degree (superficial) burns

- Are the least serious
- Injure only the top layers of the skin, the epidermis
- Caused by thermal, chemical, or sunburn
- Generally blisters do not form and no scaring

50

Second degree (partial thickness) burn

- Deep burns that damage the epidermis and dermis
- May be caused by contact with flames, hot liquids, or chemicals
- fluid filled blisters
- May heal with little to no scaring

51

Third degree (full- thickness) burns

- Epidermis and dermis are destroyed and some underlying connective tissue is damaged
- leaves skin waxy and charred with insensitivity to touch
- may be caused by corrosive chemicals, flames, electricity, or extremely hot objects; immersion of body in hot water, or clothes catching fire
- Ulcerating wounds and scaring, skin grafting is commonly required

52

Grade and stage tumors to help in diagnosis and treatment planning, provide a possible prognosis, and aid comparison of treatment results when different treatment methods are used

Pathologist

53

Cells from the tumor site are evaluated to determine the degree of loss of cellular differentiation and function (anaplasia)

Tumor grading

54

The most common system used for staging tumors. An international system that allows comparison of statistics among cancer centers.

- Tumor-node-metastasis (TNM)
- T: size and invasiveness of the primary tumor
- N: area lymph nodes involved
- M: invasiveness (metastasis) of the primary tumor

55

Basal cell carcinoma

- Most common type of skin cancer
- Malignancy of the basal layer of the epidermis, or hair follicles
- Commonly caused by overexposure to sunlight
- locally invasive but rarely metastasize

56

Localized collection of pus at the site of an infection (characteristically a staphylococcal infection

Abscess

57

Inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles of the skin with characteristic lesions that include blackheads (comedos), inflammatory papules, pustules, nodules, and cysts and usually associated with seborrhea

Acne

58

Partial or complete loss of hair resulting from normal aging, an endocrine disorder, a drug reaction, anti cancer medication, or a skin disease

Alopecia

59

Form of intra epidermal carcinoma (squamous cell) characterized by red-brown scaly or crusted lesions that resemble a patch of psoriasis or dermatitis

Bowen disease

60

Diffuse widespread acute infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue

Cellulitis

61

Pigmentary skin discoloration usually occurring in yellowish brown patches or spots

Chloasma

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Typical small skin lesion of acne vulgaris caused by accumulation of keratin, bacteria, and dried sebum plugging an excretory duct of the skin

Comedo

63

Infection of the skin caused by fungi

Dermatomycosis

64

Skin discoloration consisting of large, irregularly formed hemorrhagic area with colors changing from blue-blacktop greenish brown or yellow.

Ecchymosis

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Chronic inflammatory skin condition that is characterized by erythema, papules, vesicles, pustules, scales, crusts, and scabs and accompanied by intense itching

Eczema

66

Redness of the skin caused by swelling of the capillaries

Erythema

67

Dead matter that is sloughed off from the surface of the skin, especially after a burn

Eschar

68

Bacterial skin infection characterized by isolated pustules that become crusted and rupture

Impetigo

69

Thickened area of the epidermis or any horny growth on the skin (such as a callus or wart)

Keratosis

70

Small brown macules, especially on the face and arms , brought on by sun exposure, usually in middle aged or older people

Lentigo

71

Unnatural paleness or absence of color in the skin

Pallor

72

Infestation with lice, transmitted by personal contact or common use of brushes, combs, or headgear

Pediculosis

73

Minute pinpoint hemorrhage under the skin

petechia

74

Inflammation, sore, or skin deterioration caused by prolonged pressure from lying in one position that prevents blood flow to the tissues, usually in elderly bedridden persons

pressure ulcer

75

Intense itching

pruritus

76

Chronic skin disease characterized by circumscribed red patches covered by thick, dry, silvery, adherent scales and caused by excessive development of the basal layer of the epidermis

psoriasis

77

Any of several bleeding disorders characterized by hemorrhage into the tissue particularly beneath the skin or mucous membranes, producing ecchymoses or petechiae

purpura

78

Contagious skin disease transmitted by the itch mite, commonly through sexual contact

scabies

79

Fungal skin infection whose name commonly indicates the body part affected

Tinea

80

Allergic reaction of the skin characterized by the eruption of pale red, elevated patches called wheals or hives

Urticaria

81

Epidermal growth caused by a virus; also known as warts. Types include plantar warts, juvenile warts, and venereal warts

verruca

82

Localized loss of skin pigmentation characterized by milk-white patches

vitiligo

83

Chemical removal of the outer layers of skin to treat acne scarring and general keratoses; also called chembrasion

chemical peel

84

Use of subfreezing temperature (commonly liquid nitrogen) to destroy or eliminate abnormal tissue, such as tumors, warts, and unwanted, cancerous, or infected tissue

cryosurgery

85

Removal of necrotized tissue from a wound by surgical excision, enzymes, or chemical agents

debridement

86

Rubbing (abrasion) using wire brushes or sandpaper to mechanically scrape away (abrade) the epidermis

dermabrasion

87

Tissue destruction by means of high-frequency electric current; also called electrodesication

fulguration

88

Procedure in which cells selectively treated with an agent called a photosensitizer are exposed to light to produce a reaction that destroys cells

photodynamic therapy (PDT)

89

Representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination

Biopsy

90

Ultrathin slice of tissue from a frozen specimen for immediate pathological examination

frozen section (fs) biopsy

91

Removal of a small tissue sample for examination using a hollow needle, usually attached to a syringe

needle biopsy

92

Removal of a small core of tissue using a hollow punch

punch biopsy

93

Removal of elevated lesions using a surgical blade

shave biopsy

94

Layers of cancer-containing skin are progressively removed and examined until only cancer-free tissue remains

Mohs

95

Transplantation of healthy tissue to an injured site

skin graft

96

Transplantation of healthy tissue from one person to another person; also called homograft

allograft

97

Transplantation of healthy tissue from one site to another site in the same individual

autograft

98

Transplantation of artificial skin produced from collagen fibers arranged in a lattice pattern

synthetic graft

99

Transplantation (dermis only) from a foreign donor (usually a pig) and transferred to a human; also called heterograft

xenograft

100

Any test in which a suspected allergen or sensitizer is applied to or injected into the skin to determine the patient's sensitivity to it

Allergy skin test

101

Skin test that identifies suspected allergens by subcutaneously injecting small amounts of extracts of the suspected allergens and observing the skin for a subsequent reaction

intradermal

102

Skin test that identifies allergic contact dermatitis by applying a suspected allergen to a patch with is then taped on the skin, usually the forearm, and observing the area 24 hours later for an allergic reaction

Patch skin test

103

Skin test that identifies suspected allergens by placing a small quantity of the suspected allergen on a lightly scratched area of the skin; also called puncture or prick test

Scratch skin test

104

Laboratory test that grows a colony of bacteria removed from an infected area (such as an ulcer, wound, or pus from an infection) in order to identify the specific infecting bacterium and then determine its sensitivity to antibiotic drugs

culture & sensitivity (C&S)

105

BCC

Basal cell carcinoma

106

C&S

Culture and sensitivity

107

CA

Cancer; chronological age; cardiac arrest

108

FS

Frozen section

109

ID

intradermal

110

I&D

incision and drainage

111

IMP

impression (synonymous with diagnosis)

112

IV

Intravenous

113

TNM

tumor-node-metastasis

114

ung

ointment

115

XP, XDP

xeroderma pigmentosum