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Orange- yellow pigment formed during destruction of erythrocytes that is taken up by liver cells to form billirubin and eventually excreted in the feces

bilirubin

1

Mass of masticated food ready to be swallowed

bolus

2

Gland that secretes its product through excretory ducts to the surface of an organ or tissue or into a vessel

exocrine

3

Circular band of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening of the body

sphincter

4

Organic compound, a true fat, that is made of glycerol and 3 fatty acids

triglycerides

5

Play an important role in initial stages of digestion by mechanically breaking down food

Teeth

6

Mechanically breaking down food

mastication

7

The main structure of the tooth located beneath the enamel

detin

8

The inner most part of the tooth which contains nerves and blood vessels

pulp

9

gingiva

gums

10

Assists in the chewing process by manipulating the bolus of food during chewing and moving it to the back of the mouth for swallowing

tongue

11

deglutition

swallowing

12

Rough projections on the surface of the tongue that contain taste buds

papillae

13

2 structures on the roof of the mouth

hard palate (anterior)
soft palate (posterior)

14

pharynx

throat

15

soft, fleshy, V-shaped structure in the back of the throat

uvula

16

The lowest portion of the pharynx divides into 2 tubes called

trachea- leads to the lungs
esophagus- leads to the stomach

17

folds back to cover the trachea during swallowing, forcing food to enter the esophagus

epiglottis

18

A saclike structure located in the left upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity, serves as a food reservoir that continues mechanical and chemical digestion

stomach

19

the first part of the small intestine

duodenum

20

The terminal portion of the esophagus composed of muscle fibers that constrict once food has passed into the stomach. Prevents the stomach contents from regurgitating back into the esophagus.

Lower esophageal (cardiac) sphincter

21

The upper portion of the stomach

fundus

22

The funnel shaped terminal portion of the stomach where most digestion takes place

pylorus

23

The interior lining of the stomach is composed of mucous membranes and contains numerous macroscopic folds that gradually unfold as the stomach fills

rugae

24

The stomach turns bolus into a semiliquid form called

chyme

25

Chyme leaves the stomach through the ________ which also regulates the speed and movement of chyme into the small intestine and prohibits backflow

pyloric sphincter

26

Food is propelled through the entire GI tract by coordinated, rhythmic muscle contractions called

peristalsis

27

Small Intestine

- 20 ft long
3 parts:
- duodeum- uppermost part, 10 in
- jejunum- 8 ft
- ileum- 12 ft

28

Digestion is completed in the small intestine with the help of additional enzymes and secretions from the

pancreas and liver

29

Nutrients in chyme are absorbed through microscopic, fingerlike projections called

villi

30

This valve allows undigested or unabsorbed material from the small intestine to pass into the large intestine and eventually be excreted from the body

ileocecal valve

31

Large intestine

- 5 ft
- begins at the end of the ileum and extends to the anus
- No digestion
3 parts
- cecum
- colon
- rectum

32

Projecting downward from the cecum is a wormlike structure called the

appendix

33

colon

- main function is to absorb water and minerals and eliminate undigested material
- Divided into 4 parts: ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid

34

The largest glandular organ in the body, weighs 3-4 lbs.

Liver

35

Functions of the liver

- Produces bile
- Removes glucose from the blood
- storing vitamins
- destroying and transforming toxic products
- maintaining normal glucose levels in the blood
- destroying old erythrocytes and releases bilirubin
- synthesizes proteins that circulate in the blood

36

An endocrine gland that secretes insulin directly into the bloodstream to maintain normal blood glucose levels.

Pancreas

37

Saclike structure on the inferior surface of the liver that serves as a storage are for bile

Gallbladder

38

When bile is needed for digestion, the gallbladder releases it into the duodenum through the

common bile duct

39

Bile it drained from the liver through the _________ and _________ which also come together to form the hepatic duct

right hepatic duct
left hepatic duct

40

Merges with the hepatic duct to form the common bile duct, which leads into the duodenum

cystic duct

41

or/o

mouth

42

stomat/o

mouth

43

gloss/o

tongue

44

lingu/o

tongue

45

bucc/o

cheek

46

cheil/o

lip

47

labi/o

lip

48

dent/o

teeth

49

odont/o

teeth

50

gingiv/o

gum(s)

51

sial/o

saliva, salivary gland

52

esophag/o

esophagus

53

pharyng/o

pharynx (throat)

54

gastr/o

stomach

55

pylor/o

pylorus

56

duoden/o

duodenum

57

enter/o

intestine (usually small intestine)

58

jejun/o

jejunum (second part of small intestine)

59

ile/o

ileum (third part of small intestine)

60

append/o

appendix

61

appendic/o

appendix

62

col/o

colon

63

colon/o

colon

64

sigmoid/o

sigmoid colon

65

rect/o

rectum

66

proct/o

anus, rectum

67

an/o

anus

68

hepat/o

liver

69

pancreat/o

pancreas

70

cholangi/o

bile vessel

71

chol/e

bile, gall

72

cholecyst/o

gallbladder

73

choledoch/o

bile duct

74

-emesis

vomit

75

-iasis

abnormal condition (produced by something specified)

76

-megaly

enlargement

77

-orexia

appetite

78

-pepsia

digestion

79

-phagia

swallowing
eating

80

-prandial

meal

81

-rrhea

discharge
flow

82

dia-

through
across

83

peri-

around

84

sub-

under
below

85

asymptomatic

do not manifest symptoms

86

The branch of medicine concerned with digestive disease

Gastroenterology

87

The physician who specializes in the diagnoses and treatment of digestive disorders

Gastroenterologist

88

A circumscribed open sore on the skin or mucous membranes of the body

ulcer

89

A common cause of peptic ulcer disease is the erosion of the protective mucous membrane caused by infection with

H. pylori bacteria

90

perforation

hole

91

peritonitis

inflammation of the peritoneum

92

A chronic inflammatory disease of the colon, commonly begins in the rectum or sigmoid colon and extends upward into the entire colon

Ulcerative colitis

93

A protrusion of any organ, tissue, or structure through the wall f the cavity in which it is naturally contained

hernia

94

protrusions of abdominal organs

viscera

95

A hernia that develops in the groin where the abdominal folds of flesh meet the thighs

Inguinal hernia

96

If the blood supply to the hernia is cut off because of pressure _______ may develop leading to necrosis with gangrene

strangulated hernia

97

Hernias that occur in newborns

congenital hernia

98

surgical repair of a hernia

hernioplasty

99

suture of the abdominal wall

herniorrhaphy

100

The lower part of the esophagus and the top of the stomach slides through an opening in the diaphragm into the thorax

hiatal hernia

101

GERD

gastroesophageal reflux disease

102

The 2 types of intestinal obstruction which can be either partial or complete

mechanical and nonmechanical

103

adhesions

scar tissue

104

volvolus

intestinal twisting

105

part of the intestine slips into another part just beneath it

intussusceptions

106

Enlarged veins in the mucous membrane of the anal canal

hemorrhoids

107

surgical removal of the hemorrhoids

hemorrhoidectomy

108

An inflammatory condition of the liver

Hepatitis

109

Hepatitis A

- Infectious hepatitis
- Common causes- ingestion of contaminated food, water, or milk

110

Hepatitis B

- Serum Hepatitis
- Common causes- blood transfusions, sexual contact
- Vaccine available

111

Hepatitis C

- Common causes- blood transfusions, sexual contact
- No vaccine
- May remain asymptomatic for years
- Can produce mild flu like symptoms

112

A condition in which small, blister like pockets develop in the inner lining of the large intestine and may balloon through the intestinal wall.

Diverticulosis

113

Symptoms of diverticulitis include

- pain in the LLQ of the abdomen
- extreme constipation or diarrhea
- fever
- abdominal swelling
- occasional blood in bowel movements

114

Lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat

anorexia

115

Inflammation o fthe appendix, usually due to obstruction or infection

appendicitis

116

Abnormal accumulation o fluid in the abdominal cavity, most commonly as a result of chronic liver disease

ascites

117

Rumbling or gurgling noises that are audible at a distance and caused by passage of gas through the liquid contents of the intestine

borborygmus

118

Physical wasting that includes loss of weight an muscle mass and is commonly associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and cancer

cachexia

119

Presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct

cholelithiasis

120

Scarring and dysfunction of the liver cause by chronic liver disease

cirrhosis

121

Spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ, especially in the colon, accompanied by pain

colic

122

Form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), usually of the ileum but possibly affecting any portion of the intestinal tract; also called regional enteritis

Crohn disease

123

Inflammation of the intestine, especially the colon, that may be caused by ingesting water or food containing chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasites and results in bloody diarrhea

dysentery

124

Inability or difficulty in swallowing; also called aphagia

dysphagia

125

Producing gas from the stomach, usually with a characteristic sound; also called belching

eructation

126

Fecal concretion

fecalith

127

Gas in the GI tract; expelling of air from a body orifice, especially the anus

flatus

128

Backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus due to a malfunction of the sphincter muscle at the inferior portion of the esophagus

gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

129

Foul-smelling breath

halitosis

130

Vomiting of blood from bleeding in the stomach or esophagus

hematemesis

131

Symptom complex marked by abdominal pain and altered bowel function (typically constipation, diarrhea, or alternating constipation and diarrhea) for which no organic cause can be determined; also called spastic colon

irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

132

Symptom complex of the small intestine characterized by the impaired passage of nutrients, minerals, or fluids through intestinal villi into the blood or lymph

malabsorption syndrome

133

Passage of dark-colored, tarry stools, due to the presece of blood altered by intestinal juices

melena

134

Excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the bodys skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal body weight

obesity

135

Body mass index (BMI) of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 pounds or more over ideal body weight

morbid obesity

136

Severe constipation, which may be caused by an intestinal obstruction

obstipation

137

Formation of white spots or patches on the mucous membrane of the tongue, lips, or cheek caused primarily by irritation

oral leukoplakia

138

Progressive, wavelike movement that occurs involuntarily in hollow tubes of the body, especially the GI tract

peristalsis

139

Stricture or narrowing of the pyloric sphincter (circular muscle of the pylorus) at the outlet of the stomach, causing an obstruction that blocks the flow of food into the small intestine

Pyloric stenosis

140

Backward flowing, as in the return of solids or fluids to the mouth from the stomach

Regurgitation

141

Passage of fat in large amounts in the feces due to failure to digest and absorb it

Steatorrhea

142

Insertion of a nasogastric tube through the nose into the stomach to relieve gastric distention by removing gas, food, or gastric secretions; instill medication, food, or fluids; or obtain a specimen for laboratory analysis

nasogastric intubation

143

Surgical joining of 2 ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another

anastomosis

144

Surgical connection of the ileum and rectum after total colectomy, as is sometimes performed in the treatment of ulcerative colitis

ileorectal

145

Surgical connection of 2 portions of the intestines; also called enteroenterostomy

intestinal

146

Group of procedures that treat morbid obesity, a condition that arises from severe accumulation of excess weight as fatty tissue, and the resultant health problems

bariatric surgery

147

Creation of an opening of a portion of the colon through the abdominal wall to its outside surface in order to divert fecal flow to a colostomy bag

colostomy

148

Procedure for crushing a stone and eliminating its fragments surgically or using ultrasonic shock waves

lithotripsy

149

Use of shock waves as a noninvasive method to break up stones in the gallbladder or biliary ducts

extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy

150

Excision of a polyp

polyectomy

151

Incision of the longitudinal and circular muscles of the pylorus, which is used to treat hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

pyloromyotomy

152

Visual examination of the gastrointestinal tract using a flexible fiberoptic instrument with a magnifying lens and a light source (endoscope) to identify abnormalities, including bleeding, ulcerations, and tumors

gastrointestinal endoscopy

153

Panel of blood tests that identifies the specific virus- hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV), or hepatitis C (HCV)- that is causing hepatitis by testing serum using antibodies to each of these antigens

hepatitis panel

154

Group of blood tests that evaluate liver injury, liver function, and conditions commonly associated with the biliary tract

Liver function tests (LFTs)

155

Measurement of the level of bilirubin in the blood

serum bilirubin

156

Test to identify microorganisms or parasites present in feces that are causing a gastrointestinal infection

stool culture

157

Test that applies a substances called guaiac to a stool sample to detect the presence of occult (hidden) blood in the feces; also called Hemoccult

stool guaiac

158

Imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles

computed tomography (CT)

159

Radiographic images of the rectum and colon following administration of barium into the rectum; also called lower GI series or barium enema

lower gastrointestinal series

160

Radiographic images taken of the gallbladder after administration of a contrast material containing iodine, usually in the form of a tablet

oral cholecystography (OCG)

161

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to visualize the biliary and pancreatic ducts and gallbladder in a noninvasive manner

magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)

162

Radiologic examination of the salivary glands and ducts

sialography

163

High-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) are directed at soft tissue and reflected as "echoes" to produce an image on a monitor of an internal body structure; also called ultrasound, sonography, and echo

ultrasonography (US)

164

Combines endoscopy and ultrasound to examine and obtain images of the digestive tract and the surrounding tissue and organs

endoscopic

165

Radiographic images of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine following oral administration of barium; also called barium swallow

upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS)

166

AIDS

acquired immune deficiency syndrome

167

Ba

barium

168

BaE, BE

barium enema

169

BM

bowel movement

170

BMI

body mass index

171

CT

computed tomography

172

EGD

esophagogastroduodenoscopy lithotripsy

173

ESWL

extracorporeal shock-wave

174

EUS

endoscopic ultrasonography (x-ray studies)

175

GBS

gallbladder series

176

GER

gastroesophageal reflux disease

177

GERD

gastroesophageal reflux

178

GI

gastrointestinal

179

HAV

hepatitis A virus

180

HBV

hepatitis B virus

181

HCV

hepatitis C virus

182

HDV

hepatitis D virus

183

HEV

hepatitis E virus

184

IBS

irritable bowel syndrome

185

LFT

liver function test

186

MRCP

magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

187

NG

nasogastric

188

OCG

oral cholecystography

189

PUD

peptic ulcer disease

190

R/O

rule out

191

RGB

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

192

stat

immediately

193

UGIS

upper gastrointestinal series

194

US

ultrasound; ultrasonography