Chapter 15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Deck (124):
0

afferent

carry or move inward toward a central structure

1

efferent

carry or move away from a central structure

2

ventricle

organ chamber or cavity that recieves or holds fluid

3

cerebr/o

cerebrum

4

crani/o

cranium
skull

5

encephal/o

brain

6

gangli/o

ganglion
knot or knotlike mass

7

gli/o

glue
neuroglial tissue

8

kinesi/o

movement

9

lept/o

thin
slender

10

lex/o

word
phrase

11

mening/o, meningi/o

meninges
membranes covering the brain and spinal cord

12

myel/o

bone marrow
spinal cord

13

narc/o

stupor
numbness
sleep

14

neur/o

nerve

15

radicul/o

nerve root

16

sthen/o

strength

17

thalam/o

thalamus

18

thec/o

sheath
usually refers to meninges

19

ton/o

tension

20

ventricul/o

ventricle
of the heart or brain

21

-algesia, -algia

pain

22

-asthenia

weakness
debility

23

-esthesia

feeling

24

-kinesia

movement

25

-lepsy

seizure

26

-paresis

partial paralysis

27

-phasia

speech

28

-plegia

paralysis

29

-taxia

order
coordination

30

pachy-

thick

31

para-

near
beside
beyond

32

syn-

union
together
joined

33

uni-

one

34

agnosia

inability to comprehend auditory, visual, spatial, olfactory or other sensations, even though the sensory sphere is intact

35

asthenia

weakness
disability
or loss of strength

36

ataxia

lack of muscle coordination in the execution of voluntary movement

37

closed head trauma

Injury to the head in which the dura mater remains intact and brain tissue is not exposed

38

coma

abnormally deep unconsciousness with an absence of voluntary response to stimuli

39

concussion

injury to the brain, occasionally with transient loss of consciousness as a result of trauma to the head

40

convulsion

broad term that refers to cognitive deficit including memory impairment

41

dyslexia

inability to learn and process written language despite adequate intelligence, sensory ability, and exposure

42

Guillain-Barre syndrome

autoimmune condition that causes acute inflammation of the peripheral nerves in which myelin sheaths on the axons are destroyed, resulting in decreased nerve impulses, loss of reflex response, and sudden muscle weakness

43

herpes zoster

acute inflammatory eruption of highly painful vesicles on the trunk of the body or, occasionally, the face
also called shingles

44

huntington chorea

inherited disease of the CNS characterized by quick, involuntary movements, speech disturbances, and mental deterioration

45

hydrocephalus

accumulation of fluid in the ventricles of the brain, causing increased intracranial pressure (ICP), thinning of brain tissue, and separation of cranial bones

46

acquired hydrocephalus

develops at birth or any time afterward as a result of injury or disease

47

congenital hydrocephalus

caused by factors that occur during fetal development or as a result of genetic abnormalities

48

lethargy

abnormal inactivity or lack of response to normal stimuli

49

anencephaly

congenital deformity in which some or all of fetal brain is missing

50

spina bifida

congenital deformity of the neural tube (embryonic structure that becomes the fetal brain and spinal cord) which fails to close during fetal development
also called neural tube defect

51

meningocele spina bifida

the spinal cord develops properly but the meninges protrude through the spine

52

myelomeningocele spina bifida

most severe form in which the spinal cord and meninges protrude through the spine

53

occulta spina bifida

form of spina bifida in which one or more vertebrae are malformed and the spinal cord is covered with a layer of skin

54

palsy

paralysis, usually partial, and commonly characterized by weakness and shaking or uncontrolled tremor

55

Bell palsy

facial paralysis caused by a functional disorder of the seventh cranial nerve

56

cerebral palsy

type of paralysis that affects movement and body position and sometimes speech and learning ability

57

paralysis

loss of voluntary motion in one or more muscle groups with or without loss of sensation

58

hemiplegia paralysis

paralysis of one side of the body, typically as the result of a stroke
also called unilateral paralysis

59

paraplegia paralysis

paralysis of both lower limbs
typically as a result of trauma or disease of the lower spinal cord

60

quadriplegia

paralysis of both arms and legs
commonly resulting in bowel, bladder, and sexual dysfunction

61

paresthesia

sensation of numbness, prickling, tingling, or heightened sensitivity

62

poliomyelitis

inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, commonly resulting in spinal and muscle deformity an paralysis

63

reye syndrome

acute encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of the brain, liver, and, possibly, the pancreas, heart, kidney, spleen, and lymph nodes

64

syncope

brief loss of consciousness and posture caused by temporay decrease of blood flow to the brain
also called fainting

65

electroencephalography (EEG)

recording of electrical activity in the brain, whose cells emit distinct patterns of rhythmic electrical impulses

66

electromyography (EMG)

recording of electrical signals (action potentials) that occur in a muscle when it is at rest and during contraction to assess muscular disease or nerve damage

67

lumbar puncture (LP)

needle puncture of the spinal cavity to extract spinal fluid for diagnostic purposes, introduce anesthetic agents into the spinal canal, or remove fluid to allow other fluids (such as radiopaque substances) to be injected
also called a spinal puncture and spinal tap

68

nerve conduction velocity

test that measures the speed at which impulses travel through a nerve

69

cryosurgery

technique that exposes abnormal tissue to extreme cold to destroy it

70

stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS)

precisely focused (stereotactic radiation beams are used to treat tumors and other abnormal growths in the brain, spinal column and other body sites, and delivers high doses of radiation to the tumor with minimal exposure to surrounding healthy tissue

71

thalamotomy

partial destruction of the thalamus to treat intractable pain, involuntary movements, including tremors in Parkinson disease; or emotional disturbances

72

tractotomy

transection of a nerve tract in the brain stem or spinal cord

73

trephination

technique that cuts a circular opening into the skull to reveal brain tissue and decrease intracranial pressure

74

ventriculoperitoneal shunting

relieves intracranial pressure due to hydrocephalus by diverting (shunting) excess cerebrospinal fluid from teh ventricles into the peritoneal or thoracic cavity

75

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis

lab test to examine a sample of fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord
used to diagnose disorders of the central nervous system, including viral and bacterial infections, tumors, and hemorrhage

76

angiography

radiographic image (angiogram) of the inside of a blood vessel after injection of a contrast medium
also called arteriography

77

computed tomography angiography (CTA)

angiography in combination with a CT scan to produce high-resolution three-dimensional vascular images of the blood vessels

78

discography

CT scan of the lumbar region after injection of a contrast medium to detect problems with teh spine and spinal nerve root

79

echoencephalography

Ultrasound technique used to study intracranial structures of the brain and diagnose conditions that cause a shift in the midline structures of the brain

80

magnetic source imaging (MSI)

Noninvasive neuroimaging technique to pinpoint the specific location where seizure activity originates and enable custom surgical treatment for tumor and epileptic tissue resection
also called MEG

81

Myelography

radiographic examination to detect pathology of the spinal cord, including the location of a spinal cord injury, cysts, and tumors following injection of a contrast medium

82

positron emission tomography (PET)

computed tomography that records the positrons (positively charged particles) emitted from a radiopharmaceutical and produces a cross-sectional image of metabolic activity of body tissues to determine the presence of disease

83

AD

Alzheimer disease

84

ADHD

attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder

85

CNS

central nervous system

86

CP

cerebral palsy

87

CSF

cerebrospinal fluid

88

CT

computed tomography

89

CTA

computed tomography angiography

90

CVA

cerevrovascular accident

91

EEG

electroencephalography

92

EMG

electromyography

93

ICP

intracranial pressure

94

LOC

loss of consciousness

95

LP

lumbar puncture

96

MEG

magnetoencephalography

97

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

98

MS

musculoskeletal
multiple sclerosis
mental status
mitral stenosis

99

MSI

magnetic source imaging

100

NCV

nerve conduction velocity

101

PET

positron emission tomography

102

PNS

peripheral nervous system

103

SRS

stereotactic radiosurgery

104

TIA

transient ischemic attack

105

kinesi/o

movement

106

myel/o

spinal cord

107

-lepsy

seizure

108

encephal/o

brain

109

cerebr/o

cerebrum

110

crani/o

cranium
skull

111

neur/o

nerve

112

myel/o

bone marrow
spinal cord

113

psych/o

mind

114

clonic

phase of the grand mal seizure characterized by uncontrolled jerking of the body

115

autism

mental disorder characterized by extreme withdrawal and abnormal absorption in fantasy

116

NCV

tests the speed at which impulses travel through a nerve

117

cryosurgery

technique that uses extreme cold to destroy tissue

118

TIA

stroke whose symptoms resolve in about 24 hours

119

thalamotomy

surgical treatment for intractable pain
involuntary movements, including tremors in parkinson disease or emotional disturbances

120

tractotomy

transection of a nerve tract in the brain stem or spinal cord

121

trephination

incision of a circular opening into the skull to reveal brain tissue and decrease intracranial pressure

122

sciatica

pain that radiates down the nerve

123

osteophyte

bone spur