Chapter 7 Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Chapter 7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (216):
0

O2

Oxygen

1

Co2

Carbon dioxide

2

Ventilation

Breathing

3

pH

Acidity/alkalinity

4

A chamber lined with mucous membranes and cilia

Nasal cavity

5

Tiny hairs in nose

Cilia

6

Vertical partition of cartilage that divides the nose into left and right sides

Nasal septum

7

Pharynx

Throat

8

3 sections of the nose

Nasopharynx
Oropharynx
Laryngopharynx

9

Adenoids

Pharyngeal tonsils

10

Palatine tonsils

- Commonly known as tonsils
- located in oropharynx

11

Larynx

Voice box
Contains the structures that make vocal sounds possible

12

Epiglottis

Leaf shaped structure on top of the larynx
Seals off the air passage to the lungs during swallowing

13

Trachea

Windpipe

14

2 branches that the trachea divides into

Called bronchi and one branch leads to left lung and the other right lung

15

Mucous membrane (mucosa)

Make up the inner walls of the trachea and bronchi
Embedded with cilia

16

Bronchioles

Bronchus divided into smaller and smaller branches

17

Alveoli

At the end of the bronchioles
Tiny air sacs

18

Pulmonary capillaries

Lie next to the thin tissue membranes of the alveoli

19

Mediastinum

The space between the right and left lungs

20

Pleura

Covers the lobes of the lungs and folds over to line the walls of the thoracic cavity

21

Visceral pleura

The membrane lying closest to the lung

22

Parietal pleura

The membrane that lines the thoracic cavity

23

Pleural cavity

The space between the visceral and parietal pleura

24

Diaphragm

Large muscular partition
Lies between the chest and abdominal cavities

25

Inspiration

Drawing air into the lungs

26

Tasteless, colorless, odorless gas produced by body cells during metabolism

Carbon dioxide CO2

27

Tough, elastic connective tissue that is more rigid than ligaments but less dense than bone

cartilage

28

To move or spread out a substance at random, rather than by chemical reaction or application of external forces

diffuse

29

Moist tissue layer lining hollow organs and cavities of the body that open to the environment

Mucous membrane
mucosa

30

Tasteless, odorless, colorless gas essential for human respiration

oxygen (O2)

31

Symbol that indicates degree of acidity or alkalinity of a substance

pH

32

Wall dividing 2 cavaties

septum

33

Thin layer of tissue that covers internal body cavities and secretes a fluid that keeps the membrane moist

serous membrane
serosa

34

air that leaves the lungs

expiration

35

Involuntary action that moves air into and out of the lungs in response to changes in blood O2 and CO2 levels and nervous stimulation of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles

Pulmonary ventilation
breathing

36

The exchange of O2 and CO2 between the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries

external respiration

37

Occurs when blood, aided by the cardiovascular system, transports CO2 to the lungs and O2 to the body

transportation of respiratory gases

38

The exchange of O2 and CO2 between body cells and the blood in systemic capillaries

Internal respirationq

39

nas/o

nose

40

rhin/o

nose

41

sept/o

septum

42

sinus/o

sinus, cavity

43

adenoid/o

adenoids

44

tonsill/o

tonsils

45

pharyng/o

pharynx
throat

46

laryng/o

larynx
voice box

47

trache/o

trachea
wind pipe

48

bronchi/o

bronchus

49

bronch/o

bronchus

50

bronchiol/o

bronchiole

51

alveol/o

alveolus
air sac

52

pleur/o

pleura

53

pneum/o

air
lung

54

pneumon/o

air
lung

55

pulmon/o

lung

56

anthrac/o

coal
coal dust

57

atel/o

incomplete
imperfect

58

coni/o

dust

59

cyan/o

blue

60

lob/o

lobe

61

orth/o

straight

62

ox/i

oxygen

63

ox/o

oxygen

64

pector/o

chest

65

steth/o

chest

66

thorac/o

chest

67

phren/o

diaphragm
mind

68

spir/o

breathe

69

-capnia

carbon dioxide (CO2)

70

-osmia

smell

71

-phonia

voice

72

-pnea

breathing

73

-ptysis

spitting

74

-thorax

chest

75

brady-

slow

76

dys-

bad
painful
difficult

77

eu-

good
normal

78

tachy-

rapid

79

Medical specialty concerned with disorders of the respiratory system

pulmonology

80

The physician who treats respiratory system disorders

pulmonologist

81

Spasms produced by asthma in the bronchial passages

bronchospasms

82

Coughing episodes that produce large amounts of mucus

productive cough

83

flare-ups

exacerbations

84

Agents that loosen and break down mucus

mucolytics

85

medications that expand the bronchi

bronchodilators

86

Inflammation of the bronchi caused mainly by smoking and air pollution

chronic bronchitis

87

Bronchodilators and medications that aid in the removal of mucus and help widen air passages

expectorants

88

A disease that is characterized by decreased elasticity of the alveoli

Emphysema

89

Most emphysema sufferers find it easier to breathe when sitting upright or standing erect

orthopnea

90

An acute infectious respiratory viral disease

Influenza (flu)

91

worldwide epidemics

pandemics

92

muscle pain

myalgia

93

Any abnormal fluid in the pleural cavity, the space between the visceral and parietal pleura

pleural effusion

94

Listening to sounds made by organs of the body using a stethoscope

Auscultation

95

Gentle tapping on the chest with fingers and listening to the resultant sounds to determine the position, size, or consistency of underlying structures

Percussion

96

Noninflammatory fluid that resembles serum but with slightly less protein

transudate

97

Usually high in protein and commonly contains blood and immune cells

exudate

98

pleural effusion serum

hydrothorax

99

pleural effusion pus

empyema
pyothorax

100

pleural effusion blood

hemothorax

101

pleural space

pneumothorax

102

Surgical puncture of the chest using a hollow-bone needle

thoracocentesis
thoracentesis

103

A communicable disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB)

104

Droplets of respiratory secretions

droplet nuclei

105

keeps it alive

viable

106

AFB

acid-fast bacillus

107

The first time the TB organism enters the body

primary tuberculosis

108

TB eventually produces typical inflammatory nodules

granulomas

109

granulomas that encase the organism

tubercles

110

When the immune system becomes impaired

immunocompromised

111

using several antibioltics

combination therapy

112

Any inflammatory disease of the lung

Pneumonia

113

Potentially fatal pneumonia may result from food or liquid inhalation

aspiration pneumonias

114

pneumonias that affect only one lobe of the lung

lobar pneumonia

115

more diffuse pneumonia

bronchopneumonia

116

spitting of blood

hemoptysis

117

lung tissue looses its spongy texture and becomes swollen and engorged

consolidation

118

PCP

Pneumocystis pneumonia

119

Organisms that reside in or on most people

normal flora

120

When the immune system begins to fail, this organism becomes infectious

opportunistic

121

bronchial washings

lavage

122

A hereditary disorder of the exocrine glands that causes the body to secrete extremely thick mucus

viscous

123

Medications in the form of mists

aerosols

124

Important diagnostic test that measures the amount of salt excreted in sweat

sweat test

125

Condition in which the lungs no longer function effectively, threatening the life of the patient

Acute Respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

126

Major infections that affect the entire body

systemic infections

127

Major infection that affect the blood

sepsis

128

Alveoli fill with fluid

edema

129

HMD

Hyaline membrane disease
a form of respiratory distress syndrome

130

IRDS

Infant respiratory distress syndrome

131

A phospholipid substance that helps keep alveoli open

surfactant

132

nares

nostrils

133

cyanosis

blueness

134

tachypnea

rapid breathing

135

Membrane that has a ground-glass appearance

hyaline membrane

136

A malignancy that arises from the epithelium of the bronchial tree

Lung cancer
bronchogenic carcinoma

137

Metastasize

spread

138

Excessive acidity of body fluids

acidosis

139

Absence of the sense of smell

anosmia

140

Temporary loss of breathing

apnea

141

sleeping disorder in which breathing stops repeatedly for more than 10 seconds, causing measurable blood deoxygenation

sleep apnea

142

Condition caused by insufficient intake of oxygen

asphyxia

143

Collapsed or airless state of the lung, which may be acute or chronic and affects all or part of a lung

atelectasis

144

Repeated breathing pattern characterized by fluctuation in the depth of respiration: first deeply, then shallow, then not at all

Cheyne-Stokes respiration

145

Acute inflammation of the membranes of the nose; also called head cold or upper respiratory infection (URI)

Coryza

146

Abnormal respiratory sound heard on auscultation, caused by exudates, spasms, hyperplasia, or when air enters moisture-filled alveoli

crackle

147

Common childhood condition involving inflammation of the larynx, trachea, bronchial passages and, sometimes, lungs

croup
CROOP

148

Displacement of cartilage dividing the nostrils that causes reduced airflow and, sometimes, nosebleed

deviated nasal septum

149

Severe, life-threatening infection of the epiglottis and supraglottic structures that occurs most commonly in children between 2 and 12 years of age

epiglottitis

150

Nasal hemorrhage; also called nosebleed

epistaxis

151

Enlargement of the terminal phalanges of the fingers and toes commonly associated with pulmonary disease

finger clubbing

152

Oxygen deficiency in arterial blood; usually a sign of respiratory impairment

hypoxemia

153

Oxygen deficiency in body tissues; usually a sign of respiratory impairment

hypoxia

154

Acute, infectious disease characterized by a cough that has a "whoop" sound; also called whooping cough

pertussis

155

Inflammation of the pleural membrane characterized by stabbing pain that is intensified by coughing or deep breathing; also called pleuritis

pleurisy

156

Disease caused by inhaling dust particles

pneumoconiosis

157

Accumulation of extravascular fluid in lung tissue and alveoli, most commonly caused by heart failure

pulmonary edema

158

Blockage in an artery of the lungs caused by a mass of undissolved matter

pulmonary embolism

159

Abnormal breath sound heard on auscultation of an obstructed airway

rhonchus

160

High-pitched, harsh, adventitious breath sound caused by a spasm or swelling of the larynx or an obstruction in the upper airway

stridor

161

Completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently normal, healthy infant, usually less than age 12 months; also called crib death

sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

162

Whistling or sighing sound heard on auscultation that results from narrowing of the lumen of the respiratory passageway

wheeze

163

Lung treatment using various techniques to deliver medication in mist form directly to the lungs or air passageways

aerosol therapy

164

Washing or irrigating of the paranasal sinuses to remove mucopurulent material in an immunosuppressed patient or one with know sinusitis that has failed medical management

antral lavage

165

Noninvasive method of monitoring the percentage of hemoglobin (Hb) saturated with oxygen

oximetry
pulse oximetry

166

Test of sleep cycles and stages using continuous recordings of brain waves (EEGs), electrical activity of muscles, eye movement, respiratory rate, blood pressure, blood oxygen saturation, heart rhythm and sometimes, direct observation of the person during sleep using a video camera

polysomngraphy

167

Method of positioning a patient so that gravity aids in the drainage of secretions from the bronchi and lobes of the lungs

postural drainage

168

Variety of tests used to evaluate respiratory function, the ability of the lungs to take in and expel air as well as perform gas exchange across the alveolocapillary membrane

pulmonary function test (PFTs)

169

PFT that measures the breathing capacity of the lungs, including the time necessary for exhaling the total volume of inhaled air

spirometry

170

Procedure in which a plastic tube is inserted into the trachea to maintain an open airway

endotracheal intubation

171

Excision of part of the pleura, usually the parietal pleura

pleurectomy

172

Excision of a lung or a portion of the lung, commonly for treatment of cancer

pneumectomy

173

Surgical repair of a deviated nasal septum usually performed when the septum is encroaching on the breathing passages or nasal structures

septoplasty

174

Surgical puncture and drainage of the pleural cavity

thoracentesis
pleurocentesis

175

Surgical procedure in which an opening is made in the neck and into the trachea into which a breathing tube may be inserted

tracheostomy

176

Intradermal test to determine tuberculin sensitivity based on a positive reaction where the area around the test site becomes red and swollen

Mantoux test

177

Visual examination of the bronchi using an endoscope (flexible fiberoptic or rigid) inserted through the mouth and trachea for direct viewing of structures or for projection on a monitor

bronchoscopy

178

Visual examination of the larynx to detect tumors, foreign bodies, nerve or structural injury, or other abnormalities

laryngoscopy

179

Visual examination of the mediastinal structures, including the heart, trachea, esophagus, bronchus, thymus, and lymph nodes

mediastinoscopy

180

Test that measures dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide in arterial blood

arterial blood gas (ABG)

181

Microbial test used to identify disease-causing organisms of the lower respiratory tract, especially those that cause pneumonias

sputum culture

182

Measurement of the amount of salt (sodium chloride) in sweat

sweat test

183

Test used to identify pathogens, especially group A strtococci

throat culture

184

Minimally invasive imaging that combines computed tomography scanning and angiography to produce images of the pulmonary arteries

computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA)

185

Nuclear test scan that evaluates both airflow (ventilation) and blood flow (perfusion) in the lungs for evidence of a blood clot in the lungs

ventilation-profusion (V-Q) scan

186

ABG

arterial blood gas

187

AFB

acid-fast bacillus

188

ARDS

acute respiratory distress syndrome

189

CA

cancer

190

COPD

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

191

CPAP

continuous positive airway pressure

192

CPR

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

193

CT

computed tomography

194

CTPA

computed tomography pulmonary angiography

195

CXR

chest x-ray
chest radiograph

196

DPI

dry powder inhaler

197

DPT

diptheria
pertussis
tetanus

198

Hb, Hgb

hemoglobin

199

HMD

hyaline membrane disease

200

IRDS

infant respiratory distress syndrome

201

MDI

metered-dose inhaler

202

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

203

NMT

nebulized mist treatment

204

PA

posteroanterior
pernicious anemia

205

Pco2

partial pressure of carbon dioxide

206

PCP

pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
primary care physician

207

PFT

pulmonary function test

208

PND

paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

209

RD

respiratory distress

210

RDS

respiratory distress syndrome

211

SIDS

sudden infant death syndrome

212

SOB

shortness of breath

213

T&A

tonsillextomy and adenoidectomy

214

TB

tuberculosis

215

URI

upper respiratory infection