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The 3 main parts of a cell

cell membrane
cytoplasm
nucleus

1

cytology

they study of the body at the cellular levell

2

jellylike matrix of proteins, salts, water, dissolved gases, and nutrients is called

cytoplasm

3

nucleus

responsible for metabolism, growth, and reproduction
carries the genetic blueprint of the organism
blueprint found in DNA
When the cell is ready to divide, chromatin forms chromosomes

4

Tissue

Groups of cells that perform a specialized activity

5

Histology

The study of tissues

6

Epithelial tissue

-Covers surfaces of organs, lines cavities and canals, forms tubes and ducts, provides the secreting portions of glands, and makes up the epidermis of the skin.
-Composed of cells arranged in a continuous sheet consisting of one or more layers

7

Connective tissue

- Supports and connects other tissues and organs
- Made up of diverse cell types, including fibroblasts, fat cells, and blood.

8

Muscle tissue

- Provides contractile tissue
- responsible for movement.

9

Nervous tissue

- Transmits electrical impulses as it relays information throughout the entire body

10

Chromatin

Structural component of the nucleus, composed of nucleic acids and proteins

11

Chromosome

Threadlike structures within the nucleus composed of DNA that carries hereditary information encoded in genes

12

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

Molecule that holds genetic information capable of replicating and producing an exact copy whenever the cell divides

13

diaphragm

Muscular wall that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity

14

metabolism

Sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism.

15

organelle

Cellular structure that provides a specialized function

16

Organ

- Body structures that perform specialized functions
- Composed of two or more tissue types

17

System

- Composed of varying numbers of organs and accessary structures that have similar or related functions.

18

Organism

- The highest level of organization
- A complete living entity capable of independent existence

19

Anatomical position

- Used to locate anatomical parts or divisions
- Body standing erect and the face forward, the arms by the sides, with the palms facing forward

20

Plane

- An imaginary flat surface that divides the body into 2 sections

21

Body cavaties

- Spaces within the body that help protect, separate, and support internal organs

22

dorsal body cavity

- (posterior) including the cranial and spinal cavaties

23

ventral body cavity

- (anterior) includes the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities

24

Midsagittal plane

(median)
Right and left halves

25

Coronal plane

(frontal)
Anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) aspects

26

Transverse plane

(horizontal)
Superior (upper) and inferior (lower) aspects

27

How many quadrants is the abdominalelvic cavity divided into

4

28

How many regions is the abdominopelvic cavity divided into

9

29

Abduction

Movement away from the midsagittal (median) plane of the body or one of its parts

30

Adduction

Movement toward the midsagittal (median) plane of the body

31

Medial

Pertaining to the midline of the body structure

32

Lateral

Pertaining to a side

33

Superior (cephalad)

Toward the head or upper portion of a structure

34

Inferior (caudal)

Away from the head, or toward the tail or lower part of a structure

35

Proximal

Nearer to the center ( trunk of the body) r to the point of attachment to the body

36

Distal

Further from the center (trunk of the body) or from the point of attachment

37

Anterior (ventral)

Front of the body

38

Posterior (dorsal)

Back of the body

39

Parietal

Pertaining to the outer wall of the body cavity

40

Visceral

Pertaining to the viscera, or internal organs, especially the abdominal organs

41

Prone

Lying on the abdomen, face down

42

Supine

Lying horizontally on the back, face up

43

Inversion

Turning inward or inside out

44

Eversion

Turning outward

45

Palmar

Pertaining to the palm of the hand

46

Plantar

Pertaining to the sole of the foot

47

Superficial

Toward the surface of the body (external)

48

Deep

Away from the surface of the body (internal)

49

cyt/o

cell

50

hist/o

tissue

51

kary/o

nucleus

52

nucle/o

nucleus

53

anter/o

anterior, front

54

caud/o

tail

55

cephal/o

head

56

dist/o

far, farther

57

dors/o

back (of body)

58

infer/o

side, to one side

59

medi/o

middle

60

poster/o

back (of body), behind, posterior

61

proxim/o

near, nearest

62

ventr/o

belly, belly side

63

abdomin/o

abdomen

64

cervic/o

neck; cervix uteri (neck of uterus)

65

crani/o

cranium (skull)

66

gastro/o

stomach

67

ili/o

ilium (lateral, flaring portion or hip bone)

68

inguin/o

groin

69

lumb/o

loins (lower back)

70

pelv/i

pelvis

71

pelv/o

pelvis

72

spin/o

spine

73

thorac/o

chest

74

umbilic/o

umbilicus, navel

75

albin/o

white

76

leuk/o

white

77

chlor/o

green

78

chrom/o

color

79

cirrh/o

yellow

80

jaund/o

yellow

81

xanth/o

yellow

82

cyan/o

blue

83

erythr/o

red

84

melan/o

black

85

poli/o

gray; gray matter (of brain or spinal cord)

86

acr/o

extremity

87

eti/o

cause

88

idi/o

unknown, peculiar

89

morph/o

form, shape, structure

90

path/o

disease

91

radi/o

radiation, x-ray, radius ( lower arm bone on thumb side)

92

somat/o

body

93

son/o

sound

94

tom/o

to cut

95

viscer/o

internal organs

96

xer/o

dry

97

-genesis

forming, producing, origin

98

-gnosis

knowing

99

-gram

record, writing

100

-graph

instrument for recording

101

-graphy

process of recording

102

-logist

specialist in the study of

103

-logy

study of

104

-meter

instrument for measuring

105

-metry

act if measuring

106

-pathy

disease

107

ab-

from, away from

108

ad-

toward

109

hetero-

different

110

homeo-

same, alike

111

infra-

below, under

112

peri-

around

113

super-

upper, above

114

trans-

across, through

115

ultra-

excess, beyond

116

Stable internal environment

homeostatsis

117

When homeostasis is disrupted and cells, tissues, organs, or systems are unable to function effectively

disease

118

Objective indicators that are observable

signs

119

A subject indicator of disease

Symptom (Sx)

120

The study of the cause or origin of a disease or disorder

Etiology

121

Establishing the cause and nature of a disease

Diagnosis (Dx)

122

The prediction of the course of a disease and its probably outcome

prognosis

123

Any disease whose cause is unknown is said to be

idiopathic

124

Complication that arise directly from a disease, injury, or treatment

Sequelae

125

Abnormal fibrous band that holds or binds together tissues that are normally separated

Adhesion

126

Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity

acites

127

Abnormal accumulation of fluid within tissue spaces

edema

128

Pertaining to a fever, also called pyretic

febrile

129

Death and decay of soft tissue, usually caused by circulatory obstruction, trauma, or infection

gangrene

130

Protrusion of any organ through the structure that normally contains it

hernia

131

Body defense against injury, infection, or allergy marked by redness, swelling, heat, pain and, sometimes, loss of function

inflammation

132

Any fungal infection in or on the body

mycosis

133

Hole that completely penetrates a structure

perforation

134

Inflammation of the peritoneum, the serous membrane that surrounds the abdominal cavity and covers its organs

peritonitis

135

Sudden breaking or bursting of a structure or organ

rupture

136

Pathological state, usually febrile, resulting from the presence of microorganisms or their products in the bloodstream

sepsis

137

Producing or associated with the generation of us

Suppuration

138

Delivery of fluids directly in the blood stream via a vein for treating various disorders; also called IV therapy

Infusion therapy

139

Removal of part, pathway, or function by surgery, chemical destruction, electrocautery, freezing, or radio frequency (RF)

Abalation

140

Surgical joining of 2 ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another

Anastomosis

141

Destruction of tissue by electricity, freezing, heat, or corrosive chemicals

cauterize

142

Scraping of a body cavity with a spoon-shaped instrument called a curette (curet)

curettage

143

Incision made to allow the free flow or withdrawal of fluids from a wound or cavity

incision and drainage (I&D)

144

Use of a high intensity laser light beam ti remove diseased tissues, stop bleeding blood vessels, or for cosmetic purposes

laser surgery

145

Removal of part or all of a structure, organ, or tissue

Resection

146

Surgical procedure used to replace or compensate for a previously implanted device or correct an undesirable result or effect of a previous surgery

revision

147

Sequence of procedures designed to evaluate the health status of a patient

assessment techniques

148

General observation of the patient as a whole, progressing to specific body areas

inspection

149

Gentle application of the hands to a specific structure or body area to determine size, consistency, texture, symmetry, and tenderness of underlying structures

palpation

150

Tapping a structure with the hand or fingers to assess consistency and the presence or absence of fluids within the underlying structure

percussion

151

Listening to the heart, bowel, and lungs with or without a stethoscope to assess the presence and quality of sounds

auscultation

152

Visual examination of a body cavity or canal using a specialized lighted instrument called an endoscope

endoscopy

153

Lab test, usually performed on serum, to evaluate various substances to determine whether they fall within a normal range

blood chemistry analysis

154

Panel of blood tests used as a broad screening test for anemias, infections, and other disease

complete blood count (CBC)

155

Series of blood tests used to evaluate a specific organ (liver panel) or disease (anemia panel)

organ- disease panel

156

Imaging technology in which an x-ray emitter rotates around the area to be scanned and a computer measures the intensity of transmitted x-rays from different angles; formerly called computerized axial tomography

computed tomography (CT)

157

Technique in which x-rays are directed through the body to a fluorescent screen that displays internal structures in continuous motion

fluoroscopy

158

Technique that uses radio waves and strong magnetic field, rather than an x-ray beam, to produce highly detailed mutiplanar, cross-sectional views of soft tissues

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

159

Technique in which a radioactive material (radiopharmaceutical) called a tracer is introduced into the body (inhaled, ingested, or injected) and a specialized camera (gamma camera) is used to produce images of organs and structures

nuclear scan

160

Computed tomography records the positrons (positive charged particles) emitted from a radiopharmaceutical to produce a cross-sectional image of metabolic activity of body tissues to determine the presence of disease.

Positron emission tomography (PET)

161

Technique in which x-rays are passed through the body or area and captured on a film to generate an image; also called x-ray

radiography

162

Radiological technique that integrates computed tomography (CT) and a radioactive material (tracer) injected into the bloodstream to visualize blood flow to tissues and organs

single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

163

High-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) are directed at soft tissue and reflected as "echoes" to produce an image on a monitor of an internal body structure; also called ultrasound, sonography, and echo

ultrasonography (US)

164

Removal of a representative tissue sample from a body site for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis

Biopsy (bx)

165

Biopsy in which the entire lesion is removed

excisional

166

Biopsy in which only a small sample of the lesion is removed

incisional

167

AP

Anteroposterior

168

Bx, bx

biopsy

169

CBC

Complete blood count

170

CT

Computed tomography

171

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

172

Dx

diagnosis

173

I&D

incision & drainage

174

LAT, lat

lateral

175

LLQ

Lower Left Quadrant

176

LUQ

Left Upper Quadrant