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Connective tissue composed of a liquid medium in which solid components are suspended

plasma

1

red blood cells

erythrocytes

2

white blood cells

leukocytes

3

platelets

thrrombocytes

4

embryonic

blastic

5

The development of blood cells to their mature form

hematopoiesis
hemotopoiesis

6

red cell development

erythropoiesis

7

A specialized iron-containing compound that gives red blood cells their red color

hemoglobin (Hb, Hgb)

8

Protective protein produced by B lymphocytes in response to the presence of a foreign substance called an antigen

antibody (Ab)

9

Substance, recognized as harmful to the host, that stimulates formation of antibodies in an immunocompetent individual

antigen

10

Substance derived from the breakdown of hemoglobin and excreted by the liver

bile pigment

11

Chemical substance produced by certain cells that initiates, inhibits, increases, or decreases activity in other cells

cytokine

12

Ability to develop an immune response or recognize antigens and respond to them

immunocompetent

13

Specialized lymphocytes that kill abnormal cells by releasing chemicals that destroy the cell membrane, causing its intercellular fluids to leak out

natural killer (NK) cells

14

WBCs migrate through endothelial walls of capillaries and venules, and enter tissue spaces by a process called

diapedesis

15

red acidic dye

eosin

16

alkaline

basic

17

_______ contain granules that stain a pale lilac color

Neutrophils

18

_________ contain granules that stain red because of their affinity for the red acid dye eosin

Eosinophils

19

_______ contain granules that stain dark purple because of their affinity for the purple alkaline (basic) dye

Basophils

20

The main function of basophils is to release _______ and ________ at sites of injury

histamines
heparin

21

_______ arise in the bone marrow from stem cells but mature in lymph tissue.

Agranulocytes

22

Unlike granulocytes that typically have lobed nuclei, agranulocytes have nuclei that do not form lobes. They are called

mononuclear leukocytes (MNLs)

23

Lymphocytes include

B cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells

24

The smallest formed elements found in blood

platelets or thrombocytes

25

Control of bleeding

hemostasis

26

A substance released by injured tissue that initiates clot formation

thromboplastin

27

a soluble blood protein

fibrinogen

28

The jellylike mass of blood cells and fibrin

thrombus or blood clot

29

albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen

plasma proteins

30

Fluid in which lymphocytes and monocytes are suspended

lymph

31

a network of transporting vessels

lymph vessels

32

As whole blood circulates a small amount of plasma seeps from blood capillaries this fluid is called

interstitial or tissue fluid

33

closed ended microscopic vessels

lymph capillaries

34

Lymph vessels from the right chest and arm join the

right lymphatic duct

35

The right lymphatic duct drains into the

right subclavian vein

36

Lymph from different areas throughout the body enters the _________ and drains into the __________

thoracic duct
left subclavian vein

37

__________ resembles a lymph node because it acts as a filter by removing cellular debris, bacteria, parasites, and other infectious agents.

spleen

38

_______ is located in the upper part of the chest

thymus

39

_______ are masses of lymphatic tissue located in the pharynx. The act as filters to protect the upper respiratory structures from invasion by pathogens

tonsils

40

Numerous body defenses that work together to protect against disease

resistance

41

Forms of resistance present at birth are said to be

innate

42

The most complicated type of body resistance develops after birth in an immunocompetent individual. This type of immunity is a lifelong monitoring system that remains vigilant to disease causing microbes and other potentially dangerous substances

Acquired immunity

43

After a brief stay in the vascular system, monocytes enter tissue spaces and become highly phagcytic

macrophages

44

2 types of _______, B cells and T cells, are the active cells of the adaptive immune response

Lymphocytes

45

________ is the component of the specific immune system that protects primarily against extracellular antigens, such as bacteria and viruses that have not yet entered a cell

Humoral immunity

46

B cells produce a clone of cells called ______ that produce highly specific proteins called _______

plasma cells
antibodies

47

If an antibody encounters its matching antigen, it attaches to it and forms

antigen antibody complex

48

_________ is the component of the specific immune system that protects primarily against intracellular antigens, such as viruses and cancer cells

Cellular immunity

49

________ is the cell that actually destroys the invading agent

cytotoxix T cell

50

________ is essential to the proper functioning of both humoral and cellular immunity.

helper T cell

51

chemical messengers called _______ activate, direct, and regulate the activity of most of the other components of the immune system.

cytokines

52

________ monitors the progression of infection

suppressor T cell

53

__________ find their way to the lymph system and remain there long after the encounter with the antigen, ready for combat if the antigen reappears.

memory T cells

54

aden/o

gland

55

agglutin/o

clumping
gluing

56

bas/o

base (alkaline, opposite of acid)

57

blast/o

embryonic

58

chrom/o

color

59

eosin/o

dawn

60

erythr/o

red

61

granul/o

granule

62

hem/o, hemat/o

blood

63

immun/o

immune
immunity
safe

64

kary/o, nucle/o

nucleus

65

leuk/o

white

66

lymphaden/o

lymph gland (node)

67

lymph/o

lymph

68

lymphangi/o

lymph vessel

69

morph/o

form
shape
structure

70

myel/o

bone marrow
spinal cord

71

neutr/o

neutral
neither

72

phag/o

formation
growth

73

poikil/o

varied
irregular

74

reticulo

net
mesh

75

ser/o

serum

76

sider/o

iron

77

splen/o

spleen

78

thromb/o

blood clot

79

thym/o

thymus gland

80

xen/o

foreign
strange

81

-blast

embryonic
cell

82

-emia

blood
condition

83

-globin

protein

84

-graft

transplantation

85

-osis

abnormal condition
increase (used primarily with blood cells)

86

-penia

decrease
deficiency

87

-phil

attraction for

88

-phoresis

carring
transmission

89

-phylaxis

protection

90

-poiesis

formation
production

91

-stasis

standing still

92

a-

without
not

93

allo-

other
differing from normal

94

aniso-

unequal
dissimilar

95

iso-

same
equal

96

macro-

large

97

micro-

small

98

mono-

one

99

poly-

many
much

100

The branch of medicine that studies blood cells, blood-clotting mechanisms, bone marrow, and lymph nodes

Hematology

101

The physician who specializes in the branch of hemotology medicine

hemotologist

102

The branch of medicine involving disorders of the immune system, including asthma and anaphylaxis, adverse reactions to drugs, autoimmune disease, organ transplantations, and malignancies of the immune system.

Allergy and immunology

103

A deficiency of erythrocytes or hemoglobin in the blood

Anemia

104

excessive blood loss

hemorrhagic anemia

105

excessive blood cell destruction

hemolytic anemia

106

decreased blood formation within bone marrow

aplastic anemia

107

difficulty breathing

dyspnea

108

tachycardia

rapid heartbeat

109

pallor

paleness

110

hypotension

low blood pressure

111

Serious form of anemia associated with bone marrow failure and resulting in erythropenia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia

Aplastic (hypoplastic)

112

Inability to produce sufficient red blood cells (RBCs) due to the lack of folic acid, a B vitamin essential for erythropoiesis

Folic-acid deficiency anemia

113

Destruction of RBCs, commonly resulting in jaundice

Hemolytic

114

Lack of sufficient iron in RBCs

Iron-deficiency anemia

115

Chronic, progressive anemia found mostly in people older than age 50 due to lack of sufficient vitamin B12 needed for blood cell development

Pernicious anemia

116

Inherited anemia that causes RBCs to become crescent or sickle shaped when oxygen levels are low

sickle cell anemia

117

An infectious disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus HIV, which slowly destroys the immune system

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)

118

infections that usually do not affect healthy individuals

opportunistic infections

119

when the immune system becomes weak

immunocompromised

120

Kaposi sarcoma

a neoplastic disorder

121

An acquired abnormal immune response

allergy

122

initial exposure

sensitization

123

urticaria

hives

124

indurated

hardened

125

An immunotherapy treatment to desensitize the patient and reduce the reaction of the patient to the offending allergen

allergy shot

126

The failure of the body to distinguish accurately between "self" and "nonself"

Autoimmunity

127

affect many organs and tissues

multisystemic

128

A chronic, progressive autoimmune neuromuscular disease that affects the voluntary muscles of the body causing sporadic weakness

Myasthenia gravis

129

RA

rheumatoid arthritis

130

SLE

systemic lupus erythematosus

131

exacerbations

flare-up

132

remissions

latency

133

An abnormal accumulation of fluids in the intercellular spaces of the body

Edema

134

Decrease in the blood protein level

hypoproteinemia

135

limited to a specific area

localized

136

Medication that promotes urination

diuretics

137

A hereditary disorder in which the blood-clotting mechanism is impaired

Hemophilia
bleeder's disease

138

A deficiency in clotting factor VIII

hemophilia A

139

A deficiency in clotting factor IX

hemophilia B

140

hematomas

blood seepage

141

blood enters a joint

hemarthrosis

142

Infectious mononucleosis

one of the acute infections caused by the Epstein-Barr virus

143

gingivitis

gum infection

144

enlarged liver

hepatomegaly

145

enlarged spleen

splenomegaly

146

An oncological disorder of the blood forming organs, characterized by an overgrowth of blood cells

Leukemia

147

proliferation

overgrowth

148

blastic

highly embryonic

149

A malignant disease of the lymph system, primarily the lymph nodes

Hodgkin disease
Hodgkin lymphoma

150

dyspnea

difficulty breathing

151

dysphagia

difficulty swallowing

152

A malignancy of connective tissue, including bone, fat, muscle, and fibrous tissue

Kaposi sarcoma

153

Abnormal activation of the proteins involved in blood coagulation, causing small blood clots to form in vessels and cutting off the supply of oxygen to distal tissue

disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

154

Process in which a recipients immune system attacks a transplanted organ or tissue

graft rejection

155

Complication that occurs following a stem cell or bone marrow transplant in which the transplant produces antibodies against recipients organs that can be severe enough to cause death

graft-versus-host

156

Localized accumulation of blood, usually clotted, in an organ, space, or tissue due to a break in or severing of a blood vessel

hematoma

157

Any disorder caused by abnormalities in the hemoglobin molecule

hemoglobinopathy

158

Any disease of the lymph nodes

lymphadenopathy

159

Swelling, primarily in a single arm or leg, due to an accumulation of lymph within tissues caused by obstruction or disease in the lymph vessels

lymphedema

160

Malignant tumor of plasma cells (cells that help the body fight infection by producing antibodies) in bone marrow

multiple myeloma

161

Presence of bacteria or their toxins in the blood

sepsis

162

Widespread autoimmune disease that may affect the skin, brain, kidneys, and joints and causes chronic inflammation

systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE)

163

Overproduction of platelets, leading to thrombosis or bleeding disorders due to platelet malformations

thrombocythemia

164

Abnormal decrease in platelets caused by low production of platelets in the bone marrow or increased destruction of platelets in the blood vessels, spleen, or liver

thrombocytopenia

165

Bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of von willebrand factor, a "sticky" protein that lines blood vessels and reacts with platelets to form a plug that leads to clot formation

Von Willebrand disease

166

Any form of treatment that alters, enhances, stimulates or restores the bodys natural immune mechanisms to treat disease

Immunotherapy

167

Injection with increasing strengths of the offending antigen given over a period of months or years to increase tolerance to an antigen responsible for sever allergies

allergy injections

168

Use of immune system stimulators to enhance the immune response in the treatment of certain forms of cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and Crohn disease

biological

169

Removal of a small sample of bone marrow using a thin aspirating needle for microscopic examination

bone marrow aspiration

170

Infusion of healthy bone marrow stem cells after the diseased bone marrow is destroyed by chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy; used to treat leukemia, aplastic anemia, and certain cancers

bone marrow transplant

171

Infusion of the patients own bone marrow or stem cells after a course of chemotherapy and/or radiation

autologous

172

Infusion of bone marrow or stem cells from a compatible donor after a course of chemotherapy and/or radiation

homologous

173

Removal of lymph nodes, especially in surgical procedures undertaken to remove malignant tissue

lymphadenectomy

174

Removal of the fist node (sentinel node) that receives drainage from cancer containing areas and the one most likely to contain malignant cells

sentinel node excision

175

Infusion of blood or blood products form one person (donor) to another person (recipient)

transfusion

176

Test to identify antibodies that attack the nucleus of the individuals own body cells (auto-antibodies)

antinuclear antibody (ANA)

177

Test to determine the presence of pathogens in the bloodstream

blood culture

178

Series of tests that includes hemoglobin; hematocrit; red and white cell counts, platelet count; and differential (diff)count; also called hemogram

complete blood count (CBC)

179

Non specific rapid serological test for the presence of the heterophile antibody, which develops several days after infection by Epstein- Barr virus, the organism that caused infectious mononucleosis

monospot

180

Test that measures the length of time it takes blood to clot to screen for deficiencies of some clotting factors

partial thromboplastin time (PTT)

181

Test that measures the time it takes for prothrombin to form a clot

prothrombin time (PT)

182

Test used to diagnose pernicious anemia by determining if the body properly absorbs vitamin B12 through the digestive tract

shilling test

183

Highly sensitive imaging procedure that detects lesions and changes in bone tissue and bone marrow, especially in multiple myeloma

bone marrow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

184

Visualization of lymphatic channels and lymph nodes using a contrast medium to determine blockages or other pathologies of the lymph system

lymphangiography

185

Introduction of a radioactive tracer into the lymph channels to determine lymph flow, identify obstructions, and locate the sentinel node

lymphoscintigraphy

186

AB, Ab, ab

antibody
abortion

187

A, B, AB, O

blood types in ABO blood group

188

AIDS

acquired immune deficiency syndrome

189

ALL

acute lymphocytic leukemia

190

ANA

antinuclear antibody

191

APC

antigen-presenting cell

192

APTT

activated partial thromboplastin time

193

BMT

bone marrow transplant

194

CBC

complete blood count

195

CLL

chronic lymphocytic leukemia

196

CML

chronic myelogenous leukemia

197

DIC

disseminated intravascular coagulation

198

diff

differential count (white blood cell count

199

DVT

deep vein thrombosis; deep venous thrombosis

200

EBV

Epstein-Barr virus

201

GVHID

graft-versus-host disease

202

eos

eosinophil (type of white blood cell)

203

Hb, Hgb

hemoglobin

204

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus

205

Igs

immunoglobulins

206

MNL

mononuclear leukocytes

207

NK cell

natural killer cell

208

PCP

primary care physician
pneumonia

209

PMN

polymorphonuclear

210

PMNL, poly

polymorphonuclear leukocyte

211

PT

prothrombin time
physical therapy

212

PTT

partial thromboplastin time

213

RA

right atrium
rheumatoid arthritis

214

RBC, rbc

red blood cell

215

segs

segmented neutrophils

216

SLE

systemic lupus erythematosus

217

WBC, wbc

white blood cell