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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (147):
0

Electrolyte

Mineral salt that carries an electrical charge when in solution

1

filtrate

fluid that passes from the blood through the capillary walls of the glomeruli into Bowman capsule

2

Nitrogenous waste

Product of protein metabolism that include urea, uric acid, creatine, creatinine, and ammonia

3

Peristaltic wave

Sequence of rhythmic contraction of smooth muscles of a hollow organ to force material forward and prevent backflow

4

peritoneum

serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and covers most of the organs within the cavity

5

pH

Symbol that expresses the alkalinity or acidity of a solution

6

plasma

Liquid portion of blood that is filtered by the nephrons to remove dissolved wastes

7

albumin/o

albumin
protein

8

azot/o

nitrogenous compounds

9

bacteri/o

bacteria

10

cyst/o, vesic/o

bladder

11

glomerul/o

glomerulus

12

kal/i

potassium (an electrolyte)

13

keton/o

ketone bodies (acids and acetones)

14

lith/o

stone
calculus

15

meat/o

opening
meatus

16

nephr/o, ren/o

kidney

17

noct/o

night

18

olig/o

scanty

19

py/o

PUS

20

pyel/o

renal pelvis

21

ur/o

urine
urinary tract

22

ureter/o

ureter

23

urethr/o

urethra

24

-genesis

forming
producing
origin

25

-iasis

abnormal condition (produced by something specified)

26

-uria

urine

27

dia-

through
across

28

retro-

backward
behind

29

anuria

Absence of urine production or output

30

bladder neck obstruction

blockage at the base of the bladder that reduces or prevents urine from passing into the urethra

31

cystocele

Prolapsing or downward displacement of the bladder due to weakening of the supporting tissues between a woman's bladder and vagina

32

dysuria

Painful or difficult urination

33

end-stage renal disease (ESRD)

Any type of kidney disease in which there is little or no remaining kidney function, requiring the patient to undergo dialysis or kidney transplant for survival

34

enuresis

Involuntary discharge of urine

35

fistula

abnormal passage from a hollow organ to the surface or from one organ to another

36

hydronephrosis

Abnormal dilation of the renal pelvis and the calyces of one or both kidneys due to pressure from accumulated urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in the urinary tract

37

interstitial cystitis (IC)

Chronic inflammation of the bladder wall that is caused by bacterial infection and is not responsive to conventional antibiotic therapy

38

nephrotic syndrome

Loss of large amounts of plasma protein,usually albumin, through urnine due to an increased permeability of the glomerular membrane

39

Neurogenic bladder

Impairment of bladder control due to brain or nerve conduction

40

polycystic kidney disease (PKD)

Inherited disease in which sacs of fluid called cysts develop in the kidneys

41

Urgency

sensation of the need to void immediately

42

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)

Disorder caused by the failure of urine to pass through the ureters to the bladder, usually due to impairment of the valve between the ureter and bladder or obstruction in the ureter

43

Wilms tumor

Rapidly developing malignant neoplasm of the kidney that usually occurs in children

44

dialysis

Mechanical filtering process used to cleanse the blood of toxic substances, such as nitrogenous wastes, when kidneys fail to function properly

45

hemodialysis

Type of dialysis in which an artificial kidney machine receives waste-filled blood, filters the blood, and returns the dialyzed blood to the patients bloodstream

46

peritoneal dialysis

Type of dialysis in which toxic substances are removed from the body by using the peritoneal membrane as the filter by perfusing (flushing) the peritoneal cavity with a warm, sterile chemical solution

47

kidney transplant

Replacement of a diseased kidney with one that is supplied by a compatible donor

48

nephropexy

fixation of a floating or mobile kidney

49

nephrostomy

the passage of a tube through the skin and into the renal pelvis to drain urine to a collecting receptacle outside the body when the ureters are unable to do so

50

stent placement

insertion of a mesh tube into a natural passage conduit in the body to prevent, or counteract a disease-induced, localized flow constriction

51

ureteral stent placement

Insertion of a thin narrow tube into the ureter to prevent or treat obstruction of urine flow from the kidney

52

urethrotomy

Incision of the urethral stricture

53

electromyography

Measures the contraction of muscles that control urination using electrodes placed in the rectum and urethra

54

cystoscopy (cysto)

Examination of the urinary bladder for evidence of pathology, obtaining biopsies of tumors or other growths, and removal of polyps using a specialized endoscope

55

blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

Determines the amount of nitrogen in blood that comes from urea, a waste product of protein metabolism

56

culture and sensitivity (C&S)

Determines the causative organism of an infection and identifies how the organism responds to various antibiotics

57

urinalysis (UA)

Urine screening test that includes physical observation, chemical tests, and microscopic evaluation

58

Ultrasonography (US)

High-frequency waves (ultrasound) are directed at soft tissue and reflected as "echoes" to produce an image on a monitor of an internal body structure

59

bladder US

US produces images of the bladder to measure pre- and postvoid residual urine, thus determining bladder volume and, potentially, identifying incomplete bladder emptying

60

intravenous pyelography (IVP)

Imaging of the urinary tract after IV injection of a contrast medium

61

nuclear scan

Technique in which a radiopharmaceutical called a tracer is introduced into the body and a specialized camera is used to produce images of organs and structures

62

ATN

acute tubular necrosis

63

BNO

bladder neck obstruction

64

BUN

blood urea nitrogen

65

C&S

culture and sensitivity

66

cysto

cystoscopy

67

EBT

external beam therapy

68

EMG

electroyogram
electromyography

69

ESRD

end-stage renal disease

70

ESWL

extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy

71

EU

excretory urography

72

IC

interstitial cystitis

73

IVP

intravenous pyelogram
intravenous pyelography

74

pH

symbol for degree of acidity or alkalinity

75

PCNL

percutaneous nephrolithotomy

76

PKD

polycystic kidney disease

77

RP

retrograde pyelogram
retrograde pyelography

78

TURBT

transurethral resection of bladder tumore

79

UA

urinalysis

80

US

ultrasound
ultrasonography

81

UTI

urinary tract infection

82

VCUG

voiding cystourethrography

83

VUR

vesicoureteral reflux

84

nephropathy

disease of the kidney

85

lithogenesis

forming (producing) stones

86

pyeloplasty

surgical repair of the renal pelvis

87

anuna

without (producing) urine

88

glomerulosclerosis

hardening of the glomerulus

89

cytoscopy

process of examining the bladder

90

dialysis

separation across (a membrane)

91

hematuria

blood in the urine

92

polyuria

(producing) much urine

93

ureterectasis

dilation of the ureters

94

meatotome

instrument to cut (enlarge) the meatus

95

nephrocele

hernia of the kidney

96

lithotripsy

crusting of a stone

97

cystogram

(x-ray) record of the bladder

98

nephrolith

stone in the kidney

99

nephropyosis, pyonephrosis

abnormal condition of pus in the kidney

100

hydronephrosis, nephrohydrosis

abnormal condition of water in the kidney

101

pyelography

process of recording the renal pelvis

102

pyelopathy

disease of the renal pelvis

103

pyel/o

renal pelvis

104

ureter/o

ureter

105

ureterectasis, ureterectasia

dilation of a ureter

106

ureterolith

calculus in a ureter

107

ureteralgia

pain the ureters

108

cyst/o

bladder

109

cystitis

inflammation of the bladder

110

cystoscope

instrument to view the bladder

111

paralysis of the bladder

cystoplegia

112

vesic/o

bladder

113

vesicocele

herniation of the bladder

114

vesicourethral

pertaining to the bladder and urethra

115

urethr/o

urethra

116

urethrostenosis

narrowign of stricture of the urethra

117

urethrotome

instrument used to incise the urethra

118

ur/o

urine
urinary tract

119

-uria

dysuria

120

oliguria

scanty urine

121

pyuria

pus in the urine

122

ureteroplasty

surgical repair of the ureters

123

cystectomy

excision of the bladder

124

urethrorrhaphy

suture of the urethra

125

pyelostomy

forming a mouth in the renal pelvis

126

cystopexy

fixation of the bladder

127

urgency

need to void immediately

128

fistula

abnormal passage from a a hollow to the surface or between organs

129

azotemia

nitrogenous wastes in blodo

130

hydronephrosis

dilation of kidneys and calices, usually due to reflux

131

urolithiasis

presence of a stone in any part of the urinary tract

132

hesitancy

difficulty in starting urination

133

pyelonephritis

inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis

134

enuresis

involuntary discharge of urine

135

polycystic

kidney disease characterized by presence of fluid-filed sacs

136

neurogenic bladder

impairment of bladder control due to brain or nerve control

137

nephrotic syndrome

loss of plasma protein due to increased permeability of the glomerulus

138

hypercalcemia

excessive calcium in the blood

139

wilms tumore

rapidly developing a malignant neoplasm of the kidney

140

nephrolithiasis

presence of stones in the kidneys

141

nephropexy

fixation of a floating kidney

142

electromyography

measures that contraction of urinary muscles

143

cycstoscopy

visual examination of the urinary bladder

144

antibiotics

drugs that inhibit or kill bacterial microorganisms

145

diurectics

drugs used to promote the excretion of urine

146

renal nuclear scan

use of a tracer to produce images of the kidney